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Alaria spp, Nanophyetus salmincola, Paragonimus kellicotti, Platynosomum fastosum

What class does Alaria spp belong to?

class: Trematoda

What family does Alaria spp belong to?

Family: Diplostomatidae

Common name of Alaria spp?

Intestinal flukes

FH of Alaria spp?

dogs, cats, foxes, minks

IH of Alaria spp?

1. freshwater snails
2. Tadpoles

PH of Alaria spp?

Frogs, snakes, humans (anything that eats tadpoles)

What do adult Alaria spp look like?

10 mm, pink or brown with oral and ventral suckers
Have cylindrical hind part

Describe Alaria spp eggs

Large egg! oval, honey color 130um, medium thick shell, distinct operculum

What is a miracidium?

free swimming, ciliated larva which emerges from the trematode egg and swims about in search of the first IH (snail).

What is a sporocyst?

larval stage of flukes that develops in the molluscan IH

What is a Cercariae?

Tadpole like larva that are the final and free swimming larval stages of trematodes.

What is a mesacercariae?

Larval stage of trematodes inside the final IH. AN encysted cercariae waiting for a final host.

What is Life cycle of Alaria spp?

Miracidia emerge from eggs, swim to snail, develop to cercariae in tadpoles, eaten by FH, develops to juvenile in the lungs, tracheal migration to small intestine where it becomes adult. PPP 5 weeks

Where does the Alaria spp live as an adult?

Small intestine

What pathogenesis might you see with Alaria spp?

Adults may cause duodenitis, lung problems with juveniles

Will Alaria spp cause problems for the PH?

Yes, in humans can be severe.

How do you diagnose Alaria spp?

Fecal sedimentation - eggs are too heavy to float (because they are so big!!!)

How can I keep my dog/cat/fox/mink from getting Alaria spp?

Don't eat frogs, praziquantel

What order is Nanophyetus salmincola a member of?

Order: Trematoda

What family is Nanophyetus salmincola a member of?

Family: Troglotrematidae

What is the common name of Nanophyetus salmincola?

Salmon poisoning fluke

What are final hosts for Nanophyetus salmincola?

dogs, cats, minks, raccoons, fish eating mammals. This includes humans

What are the IH of Nanophyetus salmincola?

1. snails
2. fish

What do adult Nanophyetus salmincola look like?

Adults are ovoid and creamy white, 2 mm
Has oral and ventral suckers

What do Nanophyetus salmincola eggs look like?

oval, yellow-brown with thick shell 80um

How can you distinguish Nanophyetus salmincola from Spirometra?

Nanophyteus common in Pacific NW, Spirometra common in FLorida and subtropical areas.

After Nanophyetus emerges from a snail, what is the second IH?

Salmonids. Eating these raw causes infection of FH.

Where does the adult Nanophyetus salmincola reside?

Small intestine

What is the PPP for Nanophyetus salmincola?

1 week - fast little suckers!

Why is infestation of Nanophyetus salmincola so dangerous if the adults don't cause much harm themselves?

Carry Neorickettsia helminthoeca which causes severe hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs only. Usually fatal.

How can I recognize Nanophyetus in my dog?

high load may cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic enteritis, lymph node enlargement, sudden fever, vomit, weight loss, fatality

How can I find the eggs?

Fecal sedimentation

How do I treat Nanophyetus salmincola?

trematocidal medicines and broadspectrum antibiotic to kill rickettsial organisms.

What order is Paragonimus kellicotti part of?

order: Trematoda

What family does Paragonimus kellicotti belong to?

family: Paragonimidae

What is the common name of Paragonimus kellicotti?

Lung fluke

Who are the hosts of Paragonimus kellicotti?

FH - dogs, cats, carnivores, humans
IH - 1. snails 2. crayfish

What does an adult Paragonimus kellicotti look like?

ovoid, 16 mm, reddish brown
Look like coffee beans with a spiny cuticle. Yuck!
Developing flukes cause lung cysts that are dark red-brown/gray, 50mm, in caudal right lung lobe.

What do the eggs of Paragonimus kellicotti look like and how can I find them?

oval, yellowish brown, up to 110um with distance operculum
Fecal sedimentation

Where do juvenile Paragonimus kellicotti migrate after ingestion by FH?

Excyst in small intestine, penetrate gut wall, migrate to lungs near a bronchiole.

What is unique about the cysts with adult Paragonimus kellicotti?

Adults are found in pairs - cozy

What is the PPP of Paragonimus kellicotti?


Where does the adult Paragonimus infect?


How do you DX Paragonimus kellicotti?

Fecal sedimentation, radiographs

How can I treat the lung fluke?

Praziquantel - wildlife reservoir.

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