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43 terms

Inside Earth Final Exam Review Terms

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crust
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
mantle
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
core
the innermost layer of Earth; made mostly of the metals iron and nickel; consists of two parts - a liquid outer core and a solid inner core
Pangaea
the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
mid-ocean ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
convection current
the movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
earthquake
the shaking that results from the movement beneath Earth's surface
focus
the point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
P wave
a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground; the first waves to arrive
S wave
a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side; these waves arrive after P waves
surface wave
a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface
Mercalli scale
a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place
magnitude
the measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Richter scale
a scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph
moment magnitude scale
a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
aftershock
an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
tsunami
a large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor
volcano
a weak spot in the Earth's crust where magma has come to the surface
magma
the molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
lava
liquid magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens
Ring of Fire
a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
island arc
a string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep-ocean trench
hot spot
an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
physical property
any characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance
chemical property
any property of a substance that produces a change in the composition of matter
viscosity
the resistance of a liquid to flowing
silica
a material found in magma that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon
pahoehoe
a hot, fast-moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils
aa
a slow-moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks; cooler than pahoehoe
magma chamber
the pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects
lava flow
the area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano's vent
pyroclastic flow
the expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption
dormant
describes a volcano that is not currently active, but that may become active in the future
extinct
describes a volcano that is no longer active and is unlikely to erupt again
shield volcano
a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
cinder cone
a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening
composite volcano
a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials
rock cycle
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another