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Air Pressure

the force exerted by the weight of a column of air on a surface


an instrument that measures air pressure


the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere


the condition of the atmosphere in a particular place at a particular time


the mainly horizontal movement of air

Local Wind

a wind that blows over a short distance

Sea Breeze

when cooler air flows from water to land

Land Breeze

when cooler air flows from land to water

Global Winds

winds that blow over long distances from a specific direction

Coriolis Effect

the curving effect that Earth's rotation has on all free-moving objects, including global winds

Jet Stream

a belt of high-speed wind in the upper troposphere


the amount of water vapor in the air

Relative Humidity

the ratio of the amount of water in the air to the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold at that temperature

Dew Point

the temperature at which air becomes saturated


a dense, visible mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere


a cloud that is near or touching the ground

Stratus Clouds

flat layers of clouds that cover much or all of the sky

Cumulus Clouds

puffy, white clouds with flat bottoms

Cirrus Clouds

thin, white, wispy clouds with a feathery appearance


liquid precipitation


precipitation in the form of ice pellets/balls that are less than 5mm in diameter


precipitation in the form of ice pellets/balls that are a minimum of 5mm in diameter


solid, crystal precipitation

freezing rain

liquid precipitation that turns to ice AFTER it lands on a surface


rain producing clouds

water cycle

the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back


the process of changing from a water vapor (gas) to a liquid water


the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas


the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)


the evaporation of water vapor from the leaves of plants

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