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30 terms

Chapter 8

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A typical characteristic of an iconic compound is
The ionic compound has a high melting point.
What is shown by the structural formula of a molecule or polyatomic ion?
the arrangement of bonded atoms
How do atoms achieve noble-gas electron configurations in single covalent bonds?
Two atoms share two electrons
Why do atoms share electrons in covalent bonds?
to attain a noble-gas electron configuration
Which of the following elements can form diatomic molecules held together by triple covalent bonds?
nitrogen
Which noble gas has the same electron configuration as the oxygen in a water molecule?
neon
Which elements can form diatomic molecules joined by a single covalent bond?
hydrogen and the halogens only
Which of the following is the name given to the pairs of valence electrons that do not participate in bonding in diatomic oxygen molecules?
unshared pair
The mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
hybridization
two or more valid electron dot formulas that can be written for the same molecule
resonance structures
a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions
structural formula
the weakest attractions that exist between molecules
van der Waals forces
Because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that the valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible.
VSEPR theory
a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
single covalent bond
a molecule in which one end is slightly negative and the other end is slightly positive
polar molecule
a covalent bond formed between two diferent atoms in which the bonding electrons are shared unequally
polar covalent bond
an electrically neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
molecular compound
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
coordinate covalent bond
Resolance structures can be considered
hybrids
When two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei, the bond that is produced is referred to as a/an
sigma bond
The shape of a molecule of NH3 is said to be
pyramidal
In a methane (CH4) molecule, the mixing of one 2s orbital with three 2p orbitals forms
four sp3 hybrid orbitals
The overlap of atomic s orbitals produces a(n)
sigma bond
What type of bond would be expected in a molecule of LiF?
ionic bond
When placed between oppositely charged metal plates, the region of a water molecule attracted to the negative plate is the
hydrogen region of the molecule
What is thought to cause the dispersion forces?
motion of electrons
Which of the forces of molecular attraction is the weakest?
dispersion
What causes dipole interactions?
attraction between polar molecules
What are the weakest attractions between molecules?
Van der Waals forces
What causes hydrogen bonding?
bonding of a covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an unshared electron pair