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amino acids and other organic molecules could have been generated on a lifeless Earth.

Miller was the first to show that

O2 (oxygen gas)

Which highly reactive gas was probably absent from the earth's primitive atmosphere?

lightning or intensive ultraviolet radiation

Experiments and chemical principles suggest that ______ powered the synthesis of complex organic compounds on prebiotic Earth


_____ are membranes containing concentrated organic molecules and have some lifelike properties, but are not alive


Earth's continents and seafloors together form a thin outer layer of the planet called the

65 million years ago

It is estimated that the modern continents began to take shape

The collision of two continental plates

Th himalaya are an example of a mountain range formed as a result of

fossil lungfishes have been found on every continent except Antartica

Which of the following lines of evidence suggests that lungfishes evolved while Pangea was intact?

five ... 50%

Over the past 500 million years, _______ mass extinctions have occurred in which at least ______o f the species on Earth became extinct.


During the _______ over 96 of marina species and many terrestrial species became extinct, possibly because intense volcanic activity warmed Earth's climate

a thin layer of iridium-enriched clay in lat Cretaceous fossil strata.

One of the strongest lines of evidence of a meteor or comet impact in the late Cretaceous is

exaptation ... for some other function and only later became adapted for flight

The concept of _____ suggests that feathers originally evolved


Structures that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are

classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried

genus, family, order, class, phylum

Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?

North America and Eurasia

According to the figure, if a species were found only in Laurassia 135 million years ago, on which modern continents would its descendants most likely be found today?

a layered structure formed by cyanobacteria

A stromatolite are


Cocci that occur in chains are called

rod-shaped bacteria



_________ obtain carbon atoms from organic organisms


The oldest known multicellular organisms include algae and ________ such as corals and worms

unicellular organisms

In all _______ all life functions happen in one cell


Organisms moved onto land when green algae gave rise to


using bacteria to clean up the environment is called


Prokaryotes are important in a chemical cycle that makes ____ available to plants.


Most bacterial diseases can be treated with


Archaea cell walls lack


Bacteria are inhibited by

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