Reproductive System, STDs, Bacteria, & Viuses
Terms in this set (122)
Name two types of haploid gametes
eggs and sperm
in which male organ are sperm made through meiosis?
testicles, seminiferous tubules.
when are sperm made?
every day after a boy hits puberty.
describe the 4 parts of the sperm
flagellum - tail, makes it swim
mitochondria - makes ATP
head - contains 23 chromosomes
cap - contains the digestive enzymes
what are some factors that can cause deformed, dead, or low sperm counts?
increased/decreased body temperature
what happens to sperm that is not ejaculated from the body?
they get recycled/reabsorbed
what do the seminiferous tubules do in males?
make the sperm by meiosis
what do the tubes of the epididymis do in males?
store the sperm
sperm mature there
where is testosterone made?
in the spaces between the spaces/tissues between the seminiferous tubules
what is testosterone?
male hormone responsible for making male characteristics (on the y chromosomes)
Hair on chest, deep voice, muscles
what 3 accessory glands secrete? in what order are they added to the sperm? why is each needed?
1.seminal vesicles - gives nutrients
2. prostate - makes alkaline (high ph, makes flagella move)
3. Cowper's gland - makes/adds lubricating fluid
what are the vas deferens?
longest tube that connect the testes to the urethra. (2) sperm has to go through this to get to the urethra in the penis (when its in the urethra, it picks up the other 3 fluids and it then becomes semen)
when are the vas deferens used?
used when a guy ejaculates
what causes an erection?
a chemical changes in a guys brain that sends a message to send blood to the penis. which makes the penis stiff (boner) and causes it to go up (erect)
what role does the urethra play in ejaculation?
tube through which the fluid shoots out from
what is prostate cancer? who gets this?
cancer in prostate; old men get this; mostly it is slow (if it is fast, you have to get chemo or surgery)
prostate cancer isn't usually deadly
prostate releases alkaline fluid
what are the three jobs of the female reproductive system?
1. produce mature egg cells
2. disintegrate non fertilized eggs.
3. protect developing
what happens to an ovum/egg that is fertilized?
the egg turns into a diploid zygote, (which later grows into a fetus). the zygote gets implanted into the walls of the uterus. this is where it grows into a fetus. (the uterus is now called the womb)
what happens to an ovum/egg that is not fertilized?
it will enter the uterus, hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are low so it is discharged from the body by a process called menstruation (getting your period)
the tissues of the uterus lining and the unfertilized egg exit through the cervix and vagina, over 4-7 days.
Where in the female is the sperm deposited?
they get deposited into the vagina and the cilia (little hairs) move the sperm through the cervix and into the uterus.
where does fertilization take place?
in the fallopian tubes.
what is the oval-shaped organ that houses and releases eggs in response to hormones>
what propels the egg through the fallopian tube?
cilia beat in the fallopian tube
when were eggs made by meiosis of diploid oocytes?
what is a zygote?
a fertilized egg
what is an ectopic pregnancy?
when the zygote/fertilized egg gets stuck in the fallopian tube, causing damage to the tube. to remove it, you must have surgery and this reduces your chances of getting pregnant by 50 percent.
what is the menstruation cycle?
getting your period on a monthly cycle. an unfertilized egg gets discharged from your body
how long is the menstruation cycle typically?
when does ovulation occur?
14 days after the beginning of your menstrual cycle
what is PMS?
when does menopause happen?
between the ages of 45 and 55 in most women
why does menopause happen?
your body produces less estrogen and this signals the end of egg production
how does the uterine wall lining, endometrium respond to levels of estrogen and progesterone?
the uterine wall gets thicker when progesterone and estrogen increase, and sheds as the level of the hormones decrease
how many chromosomes does a human zygote have?
46 (23 from each parent)
how many does a sperm cell have?
how many does an egg have?
how does the embryo change into a fetus?
at about the 8th week of pregnancy, the embryo is called a fetus. this is when the baby's organs are beginning to function inside the mother. the fingers and toes start to separate at this stage as well
why does a woman stop menstruating while she is pregnant?
because the uterine lining that is usually sent out of the body through menstruation is now necessary to house the egg.
what is gestation?
the length of the pregnancy from fertilization to birth
how long is gestation?
what are trimesters?
there are three trimesters in a pregnancy. these trimesters divide the length of your prengancy into 3 stages.
how long are trimesters?
3 months each
what type of tissues develop in the embryos first?
cardiac tissue, nervous system tissue.
when do bones begin to form?
when can the fetus move?
when does the fetus have a heartbeat?
when do lungs form?
at the end. third trimester
when does the most growth and weight gain occur?
how does the fetus get oxygen and get rid of waste while its in the womb?
through the umbilical cord
give two reason why a Cesarean section would be recommended for delivering a baby
if the baby is breeched or too big, or is in an emergency situation.
what is the function of the amniotic fluid?
protects the baby. keeps it most. keeps the temperature constant. sterile place for the baby
what is the function of the umbilical cord?
carries oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and removes the waste products.
what is the function of the yolk sac?
provides nutrients for the baby during the early stages of pregnancy, before the placenta is in place. this only lasts for a couple of weeks.
what is the function of the placenta?
to ensure that the baby is getting oxygen into its blood stream, and carbon dioxide is moved away from the baby
how are the blood vessels of a mother and child arranged?
they do not touch or connect. they come together in the placenta. they are close enough together that things diffuse together.
what does it mean when a women's water breaks?
her amniotic sac breaks, which means the baby is coming
what causes labor pains?
the oxytocin. the uterus muscle is contracting due to oxytocin. (contractions, body changes to get the baby out, dialating cervix)
what muscles are used to deliver the baby?
the muscles of the uterus
where is the cervix?
at the bottom of the uterus.. you have to push the baby from the uterus through the cervix and then through the vagina
why must the cervix dilate during the delivery?
to make space for the baby to come out
what diameter does the cervix dilate to? (cm)
what part of the baby usually exits the mother first?
what does oxytocin do?
starts labor and delivery:
makes the uterus contraction start, breaks amniotic sac, dilates the cervix
what is afterbirth?
after the baby is born, the doctor asks the mother to push one last time. she pushes out the placenta, which looks like globular blood
what is the birth canal?
who gets "postpartum depression" and why?
the mother... this is called the "baby blues." because of all the hormone changes in the woman's body. (the estrogen and progesterone levels drop)
what does STI stand for?
sexually transmitted infection
sexually transmitted disease
what types of organisms can cause STIs?
viruses, bacteria, protozoa
what are some consequences that can result from having STDs?
pain, discomfort, & embarrassment
cancers, liver damage, infertility, birth defects, and even DEATH
lifelong impact on sex life
why does having multiple sex partners increase your chances of getting STDs?
because when you have sex with one person, you are having sex with everyone they have had sex with. so when you have 5 sex partners, you are actually having sex with dozens of people (depending on whom they have slept with)
why do many infected people avoid or delay treatment for their STI?
don't know they are affected
what is abstinence?
not having sex at all
why does drug use increase likelihood of infection?
because drugs impair your judgment.
what is the most common STI?
what type of organisms cause it?
can it be cured?
yes, with anti protozoa medications
what does HPV stand for?
Human Papilloma Virus
what is the most striking symptom of HPV?
the warts can be malignant and it causes 99% of cervical cancer in women
how is the symptom treated?
you must get pap smears. cervical cancer is incredibly hard to cure.
can HPV be cured?
no cure, but the immune system will sometimes clear up the HPV from the genitals, but this stays with you for your whole life
how does HPV kill?
men - testicular cancer
women - cervical cancer
why is use of "protection" inadequate in preventing transmission of HPV?
they can break and the warts are extreamly contagious. skin to skin contact will spread the disease.
what is Gardisal?
it is the vaccination that prevents HPV
who should get Gardisal?
EVERYONE, it was originally made for girls, but guys started getting it as well.
why should you get Gardisal?
to prevent HPV and cervical cancer
which STI is epidemic among teens in the US?
why is it called "the silent STD"?
because usually there are NO SYMPTOMS so you could be dying of Chlamydia and not know about it
why is the detection of Chylmidia easier since the 1990's?
it is difficult to detect it by microscope. now, there is a urine test that can easily diagnose it.
is there a cure for Chlymidia?
what is PID?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
why is PID harmful?
causes infertility and ectopic pregnancy
Gonorrehea is caused by which type of organism?
what are the symptoms of Gonorrea?
Men: 40% no symptoms, or they have swelling, inflammation, pus secreted from penis, and painful urination
women: 60-80% no symptoms, or symptoms similar to the men. PID is likely in 50% of infected women.
how can Gonorrea infect the throat and anus?
oral sex infects the throat
anal sex infects the anus/rectum
how can Gonorrhea be cured?
treated with antibiotics
why is gonorrea associated with joint problems?
Gonorrhea bacteria is in someones bodies for over decades. they like to live in the joints and they live there for a while and they can build chancres and gummas in the joints
what group of people in the US have the highest rate of gonorrhea?
teenage girls between the ages of 15-19
for what purpose do newborn babies get 1% silver nitrate eye drops within hours of birth?
babies born through a vaginal birth will be infected if the mother has Gonorrhea. this infection will lead to blindness. the silver nitrate prevents this.
what STD causes painful, itching, reoccurring blisters on the genitals or face?
is there a cure for this STD?
NO CURE; but treatment of blisters with anti viral medication (acyclovir) to shorten the outbreaks of blisters
what factors can trigger an outbreak of blisters?
stress, fevers and UV light
hormone changes, suppressed immunity
what is in the fluid of the blisters?
its the virus. this is incredibly easy to transfer to someone else.
what is the purpose of using antiviral medications with HSV infections?
it kills the virus
why is syphilis transferrable through kissing, but not through blood donations?
because before blood is donated to the recipient, it is refrigerated. this kills all the bacteria in it.
what is unusual about the bacterium that causes syphilis?
the bacterial infections by a spirochete - bacteria shaped like a corkscrew. they drill through your tissue (can drill through your major organs)
why is this extra dangerous for a fetus?
Congenital syphilis - causes baby to have notched teeth, bent shin bones, saddle nose features.
what are the consequences to the fetus of a syphilis infected mother?
The spirochetes drill into the fetus
what are chancres?
open sores. the early stages of the syphilis.
what are gummas?
they are the last stage of infection. they are HUGE sores that go into the brain and cause death. they are internal and external
which one will kill you.. chancres or gumma?
gummas! they are in the brain
can syphilis be cured? how?
yes! antibiotics (but you have to take them for a really long time)
how are pubic lice (crabs) and scabies mites similar?
they are both caused by insects. they are both widespread, contagious, and are very itchy at night. the cure for both of them is Pesticides
what is the difference between HIV and AIDS?
HIV is the virus and AIDS is the disease that will kill you
in what group of people are half of all new HIV infections occurring?
is there a cure for HIV?
there is no cure, but you can take antiviral drugs to prevent the HIV from turning into AIDS. you have to take over 50 pills a day (a cocktail)
what body system and cell is targeted by HIV for infection?
Helper T cells in the immune system
why is this especially harmful?
it destroys someone's entire immune system.
how is AIDS transferred to others?
blood to blood contact - ex: sharing needles, tattoos
what is meant by saying that AIDS is pandemic?
it is an epidemic worldwide
what is the purpose of antiviral drug cocktails in treating HIV?
they prevent the HIV from turning into AIDs. they slow down the virus, so that the T cells dont destroy too fast.
are heterosexuals safe?
NOPE; people are bisexual and have sex with both genders, so a man can get it from another man and pass it on to a woman