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organisms (plants) that make their own food


organisms (animals) that cant use the sun's energy directly

adenosine triphosphate

a principle chemical compounD used to store energy in living things (ATP)


the process where plants use to sunlight to make their own food

equation for photosynthesis

6CO2 +6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen

what does photosynthesis require in addition to water and carbon dioxide?

light and chlorophyll


light absorbing molecule


the main pigment in plants

what are the two main types of chlorophyll?

chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b


sac-like membranes inside of chloroplasts

what do thylakoids do?

they capture the energy in sunlight


the place where the Calvin Cycle occurs (the area outside of the thylakoid membranes)


a carrier molecule that accepts and holds 2 high energy electrons and hydrogen


nadp+ along with two high energy electrons and a hydrogen molecule

light-dependent reactions

the stage where the plant uses energy from light to convert adp and nadp+ into atp and nadph

ATP synthase

a protein that alowws H+ ions to pass through the membrane

Calvin cycle

when plants use ATP's and NADPH's energy to build high energy compounds that can be stored for a while

what does the calvin cycle use and produce?

it uses atp and nadph from the light dependent reactions to create glucose

what does an ATP molecule consist of?

adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups


same thing as ATP except only with two phosphate groups instead of three

when is the energy in ATP released?

when it is converted into adp and a phosphate group

what are some examples of how atp powers the cell?

active transport and organelle movement

what is atp not good for?

long term energy

what do plants use the glucose made in photosynthesis for?

they use it to produce complex carbohydrates (example=starches)

in what form does energy from the sun travel to the Earth?


why are plants green?

chlorophyll absorbs light well int he blue and red wavelengths, but not in the green wavelengths


stacks of thylakoids


clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments and proteins in thylakoids that capture the energy of sunlight

light-independent reactions

reactions during the calvin cycle that don't require light

carrier molecule

a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them to another molecule

what could the atp synthase be compared to?

a rotating turbine

who is the calvin cycle named after?

the american scientists Melvin Calvin who worked out the details of the cycle

what could slow down photosyntheses?

shortage of water, low temperature, and intensity of light22

stomates control what?

gas exchange

parts of a chloroplast

double membrane, stroma, thylakoid sacs, grana stacks

what do light reactions do?

they convert solar energy into chemical energy

what is released during light reactions?


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