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300 terms

AP Psych Exam Review

STUDY
PLAY
The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates:
the placebo effect
The false consensus effect refers to the tendency to:
exaggerate the extent to which others agree with us
to assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of:
random assignment
slender women are considered especially beautiful in one country; in another country, stout women are seen as particularly attractive. In both countries, however, women perceived as very beautiful receive preferential treatment. This best illustrates that ______ often underlie cultural differences.
common psychological processes
in order to exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in:
experimentation
the hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to:
exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events
for which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean?
6, 18, 4, 5, 2
in order to understand the British newspaper headline 'Income for 62% Is Below Average', it is necessary to appreciate the distinction between the _____ and the mean.
Median
which technique most clearly minimizes the likelihood that any outcome differences between the experimental and control conditions can be attributed to age or personality differences in research participants?
random assignment
a correlation coefficient is a measure of the:
direction and strength of the relationship between two variables
the hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as:
unsurprising
in an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in the ____ condition
control
the belief that weather conditions signal the onset of arthritis pain best illustrates:
an illusory correlation
opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:
endorphins
people can simultaneously process many aspects of sensory information such as color, shape, and size. This best illustrates the functioning of multiple:
neural networks
the cortical regions that are not directly involved in sensory or motor functions are known as
association areas
the nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
phrenology
the selective permeability of a neural membrane creates a(n):
resting potential
the part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called:
axon
messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the:
sympathetic nervous system
the spatial junction where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called:
synapses
split-brain patients have had their _____ cut
corpus callosum
the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:
neural networks
the depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n):
action potential
the sequence of brain regions from the evolutionary oldest to newest is:
brainstem, limbic system, cerebral cortex
research on left-handedness suggests that:
genes or prenatal factors play a role in handedness
motor neurons are an important part of the:
peripheral nervous system
information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the:
corpus callosum
professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as:
behaviorism
compared to environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their:
synapses
by insisting that humans are 'nothing but' products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining:
individual responsibility
cultural diversity best illustrates our:
adaptive capacities
children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process of:
gender-typing
a random error in gene replication is known as a:
mutation
Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters are most strikingly different in:
temperament
the threadlike structures that contain genes are called:
chromosomes
even though many chairs in the library study area are unoccupied, Wang chooses to sit right next to Annest. Annest is most likely to feel uncomfortable because Wang has violated her:
personal space
kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates;
a selection effect
Professor Assad suggested that a cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is time-consuming. This suggestion best illustrates the logic of a(n) ____ theory of sexual behavior?
evolutionary
cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:
person to person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups
compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are:
less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion
gender identity refers to:
the sense of being male or female
if a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:
natural selection
when male and female students research assistants at FSU sexually propositioned an attractive person of the opposite sex, their invitations were accepted by:
most men but virtually no women
when Mr. Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from people simply because he was an elderly person. His sense of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a culture characterized by:
collectivism
one-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates:
secure attachment
adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called:
accommodation
a belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood years would be most relevant to the issue of:
stability or change
according to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stage, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate:
the ability to think hypothetically
the acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of:
stranger anxiety
habituation refers to the:
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed
avoiding physical punishment is to ______ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ______ morality
preconventional; conventional
according to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the acheivement of:
identity
crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person's:
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, "what would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" she responded, "those who had been previously blind would become leaders." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the _____ stage of development
formal operational
the first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as _____ is to an adolescent girl
menarche
maturation is to education as _____ is to ______
nature; nurture
babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of:
insecure attachment
in an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children's:
theory of mind
in order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of:
habituation
the best evidence that 4 month old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on:
habituation
damage to the temporal lobe region of the brain essential for facial recognition produces a loss of:
perception
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye
pupil
the volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of:
pitch
our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of:
top-down processing
hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ______ as recognizing the sound sequences as a familiar melody is to _____
sensation; perception
people who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their:
visual cortex
the integration of information processed simultaneously by multiple neural networks can be detected as a pattern of:
synchronized brain waves
olfactory receptor cells are essential for our sense of:
smell
sound wave vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the:
middle ear
although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower _______ for skunk odor than his parents.
absolute threshold
low-pitched sounds are to high-pitched sounds as ___ colors are to _____ colors.
red; blue
Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of:
difference thresholds
when most people stare at a red square and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage square is:
green
the coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
cochlea
on the day she is to be interviewed, for an important new position, Rachel awakens with a severe toothache. During the interview she feels no pain; not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache. Rachel's experience is best explained by:
the gate-control theory
visual information is processed by:
ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors
the quick succession of briefly flashed images in a motion picture produces:
stroboscopic movement
the cocktail party effect provides an example of:
selective attention
the impact of experience on perception is most clearly illustrated by:
perceptual adaptation
which of the following is a cue used by artists to convey depth on a flat canvas?
interposition
the perceived lightness of an object depends on relative luminance. This provides an illustration of:
context effects
You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates:
selective attention!
because the two teams wore different colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the ten basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of:
similarity
after watching a scary tv movie, Julie perceived the noise of the wind rattling her front windows as the sound of a burglar breaking into her house. Her mistaken interpretation best illustrates the influence of:
perceptual set
when there is a conflict between bits of information received by two or more senses, which sense tends to dominate the others?
vision
the perception that Bugs Bunny is hopping across a movie screen best illustrates:
stroboscopic movement
in one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrates:
inattentional blindness
as Sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filler a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddenly shrinking. This illustrates:
size constancy
Who emphasized that the whole may exceed the sum of its parts?
gestalt psychologists
which of the following is true of psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve different crimes?
they have reported visions that are no more accurate than guesses
the perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that are near each other is called:
proximity
numerous pedestrians calmly walked past an elderly gentleman lying on a city sidewalk without showing any concern. As a consequence, other passersby failed to perceive that the man was in need of immediate medical assistance. This best illustrates the importance of:
context effects
the need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of:
tolerance
alpha waves are associated with:
a relaxed but awake state
our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:
the circadian rhythm
alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more:
self-conscious
unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to:
occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions
drug tolerance refers to the:
reduced effect of a drug resulting from its regular use
40 year old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep
Those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:
biological rhythms
hypnosis has been associated with quackery, thanks to the false claims made by:
Anton Mesmer
The activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why:
people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep
Sleep apnea is a disorder involving:
the cessation of breathing during sleep
nightmares are to ____ as night terrors are to ____
REM Sleep; Stage 4 sleep
by 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in:
mental processes
studies of marijuana's effects indicate that:
regular users may achieve a high with less of the drug than occasional users
unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of:
physical dependence
28 year old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapists hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of:
age regression
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:
generalization
seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illlustrates:
operant conditioning
without any explicit training from adults, many 8 year old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parent's cars. This best illustrates the importance of:
observational learning
using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit:
intrinsic motivation
rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:
novel tastes
it is easier to train a dog to bark for food rather than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ____ in learning.
biological predisposition
the predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ____ in conditioning.
cognitive processes
Bandura's experiments indicate that _____ is important in the process of learning.
modeling
the tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on tv best illustrates the importance of:
modeling
the tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is called:
generalization
compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer electricity usage is influenced by:
operant conditioning
The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ____ is to _____
primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backwards because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:
modeling
According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:
external influences
Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding, negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding
researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:
acquisition
the letters Y M O M R E are presented. Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word M E M O R Y. This provides an illustration of:
chunking
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as:
12 seconds
shortly after you see a missing child poster, you are more likely to interpret an ambiguous adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. This best illustrates the impact of:
priming
after hamsters learned whether to turn right or left in a maze in order to find food, their body temperature was lowered until the electrical activity in their brains ceased. When the hamsters were revived, they still remembered what they had learned before the 'blackout'. The hamsters' directional memory was apparently a ____ memory
long-term
the use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of:
chunking
mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of:
retrieval
Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involves:
retrieval failure
by presenting research participants with three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of second, Sperling demonstrated that people have ____ memory.
iconic
Children can better remmeber an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates ____ memory
semantic encoding
For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates _____ memory
echoic
With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that:
adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable.
Watching a tv soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the tv program on Andrea's recall provides an example of:
priming
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ______ is to _____
visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
compared to adults, children are more susceptible to:
the misinformation effect
our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:
encoding failure
although Yusef was having difficulty recalling the capital of the Netherlands, he quickly and correctly identified it after being given a list of cities in the Netherlands. Yusef's initial inability to recall the answer was due to a failure of:
retrieval
encouraging people to elaborate on why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote:
belief perseverance
mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an elderly person must be indicative of Alzheimer's disease best illustrates the impact of:
the representative heuristic
the smallest speech units that carry meaning are called:
morphemes
the earliest stage of speech development is called the ____ stage
babbling
on monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it wouldn't rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the impact of:
framing effect
at 17 months of age, Julie says 'wada' whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ____ stage of language development.
one-word
in the words 'lightly', 'shortly' and 'neatly', the 'ly' ending is a:
morpheme
a european visitor to the united states asked a taxi driver 'can you please a ride to the airport me give?' The visitor has apparently not yet mastered the ____ of the English language
syntax
the value of generating positive first impressions in your initial interactions with a new employer is best underscored by the research on:
belief perseverance
Professor Thompson's research focuses on the impact of prototype on the speed of object recognition and identification. Which specialty area does this research best represent?
cognitive psychology
the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called?
functional fixedness
although steve was certain that he answered between 70 and 80 items correctly on his biology test, he actually was right on only 55. Steve's misjudgment of his test performance illustrates:
overconfidence
the inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called:
fixation
many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moments of sleep. This best illustrates the impact of:
availability heuristic
consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as 75% fat free rather than 25% fat. this illustrates that the consumer reactions are influenced by:
framing
at the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cried "hoy" when she wants her mother to hold her.Anita is most likely in the ______ stage of language development.
one-word
researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on alternate forms of the same test in order to measure the ____ of the test
reliability
to assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's:
reasoning skills
Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal development is most likely to facilitate the subsequent development of:
spatial abilities
the ability to control one's impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long term goals is most clearly a characteristic of:
emotional intelligence
12 year old Benjy has an IQ of 75 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is:
9
a bell-shaped curve that characterizes a large sample of intelligence test scoresis a graphic representation of:
normal distribution
the high positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of the SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ___ of these test scores.
reliability
a test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a ___ test.
aptitude
the best predictor that infants will develop high levels of intellectual aptitude is:
their tendency to quickly shift their gaze from a familiar to novel picture.
the average difference in intellectual aptitude scores of white and black college graduates has been observed to be the greatest when these individuals are:
high school juniors
your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you receive the test, however, you find that very few questions actually relate to these topics. In this instance, you would be most concerned about the ____ of the test.
validity
tests designed to assess what a person has learned are called _____ tests.
achievement
children's intelligence test scores tend to:
rise during the school year and fall during the summer months
robert sternberg distinguished among analytical practical, and ____ intelligence
creative
comparing the average performance of the initial WAIS standardization sample with the average performance of the most recent WAIS standardization sample provides convincing evidence of:
the Flynn effect
Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the:
extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity
compared to gay men, lesbian women are?
less likely to engage in promiscuous sex and more likely to enter into a committed long-term love relationship.
it is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of:
an instinct
the time span after orgasm during which male cannot be aroused to another orgasm is called?
refractory period
if pregnant sheep are injected with ____ during a critical gestation period, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior.
testosterone
full and clear communication regarding Kelsey's effectiveness as a customer service manager is enhanced by the performance appraisals she periodically receives from fellow managers, subordinates, customers, and her supervisor. This best illustrates the value of:
360-degree feedback
research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that:
the reported backgrounds o f homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar
for a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:
drive
Kamil, a 33 year old lawyer, experiences premature ejaculation. Research suggests that his disorder can be minimized by:
learning ways to control his urge to ejaculate.
A completely focused state of consciousness resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills is called:
flow
Isaac, a 25 year old law student, is heterosexual: his brother Chaim, a 21 year old college senior is homoesexual. The brothers obviously differ in their:
sexual orientation
researchers have discovered that 'cyber-ostracism' by strangers elicits increased activity in the:
anterior cingulated cortex
the influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can more clearly be seen in the influence of ____ on motivation
incentives
Sheila is more fearful of loneliness than of remaining in a physically abusive relationship with her boyfriend. This best illustrates the potentially harmful impact of ___ needs
belongingness
a homosexual orientation is:
very persistent and difficult to change
by scripting specific job-relevant questions to be asked of all those applying for a particular work position, a personnel psychologist is most clearly developing a framework for:
structured interviews
lack of body fluids is to cold water as ____ is to ____
need;incentive
the facial expressions associated with particular emotions are:
the same throughout the world
the most unambiguous nonverbal clue to our specific emotional state is provided by our:
facial muscles
research on nonverbal communication indicates that:
blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotion
who suggested that 'we feel sorry because we cry... afraid because we tremble' ?
william james
during a state of emotional arousal, the adrenal glands release ____ into the bloodstream
norepinephrine
a tv producer believes that violent tv programs provide viewers an opportunity to reduce their own anger through fantasy. The producer appears to accept:
catharsis hypothesis
Vaseem experienced excessive fear while flying because he interpreted his rapid heart rate, shallow breathing, and heavy perspiration as a reaction to imminent danger of a plane crash. When his psychotherapist convinced him that this physical arousal was simply a harmless reaction to acceleration, cabin pressure, and confined space, his fear of flying was greatly reduced. The reduction in Vaseem's fear is best understood in terms of:
two-factor theory
when students perceive the arousal that accompanies test-taking as energizing rather than debilitating, they experience much less anxiety. This is best understood in terms of the:
two-factor theory
in experiments with adult monkeys who were fearful of snakes and their offspring who were not, Susan Mineka discovered that the younger monkeys developed a fear of snakes through the process of
observational learning
logan is an unsuccessful businessman who feels little satisfaction with life. In order to increase his subjective wellbeing, logan should:
imagine what his life might be like if he were suffering from a fatal disease
according to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the subjective awareness of emotion in the same way as the _____ is related to the _____
sympathetic nervous system; cortex
10 year old Vito tells his friend 'when you notice that your knees knock, you hands sweat, and you stomach is in knots, then you get really scared'. this statement best illustrates the:
James-Lange theory
in anger-provoking situations, sexually aroused people experience more intense hostility than those who are not sexually aroused. This best illustrates the:
spillover effect
increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex is to _____ as increased activity in the left frontal lobe is to ____
disgust; joy
Milan is upset with his wife because she was over an hour late in picking him up at the airport. He is likely to deal most effectively with his feelings of irritation toward her by telling her:
"im really angry that I had to wait so long for you to get here"
Nikolaus, a high school junior, is on both the track and golf team. How will a high level of physiological arousal affect his running the 100-meter dash and his accuracy in making long putts in a golf game?
it will enhance his running and will interfere with his putting
smokers and nonsmokers have been found to differ in a gene that influences responses to:
dopamine
Hans Selye referred to the body's response to stress as:
the general adaptation syndrome
research on taste aversion in rats led to the discovery that suppression of the immune system can be influenced by:
classical conditioning
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as _______ personalities
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