Fascism Unit Test:
Terms in this set (59)
What is the Sudetenland, where is it?
Along the czech and Austrian border (southern Germany)
It consisted of:
3 million German speakers
Hitler - national self-determination
Benes (Czech PM) asks Br. & Fr. to guarantee Czech security
Chamberlain (British PM) wants to do what is right & avoid war
What was the Munich Conference and what did it accomplish?
Chamberlain, Daladier (FR), Mussolini, Hitler (No Benes, No Stalin)
Czechoslovakia must submit to Hitler's demands of Sudetenland
Chamberlain - 'Peace in our time'
End of Appeasement -
March, 1939 - Hitler orders invasion
Br. & Fr. recognize war is inevitable
Br. & Fr. make pact w/ Poland
Hitler & Stalin make 'Non-Aggression Pact'
End of Franco-Soviet Pact
Fascism- political system headed by the dictator that called for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance for opposition
The state holds total authority over the society and seeks control of all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
biased or misleading information that supports a movement
Who is Benito Mussolini and what things did he believe in?
Mussolini leads small radical right-
wing movement - the Fascists (leader of Italy)
'Black Shirts' - paramilitary political goons
What was the March on Rome in 1922?
The March on Rome
Strategy whereby they would forcibly take over the government
Mussolini gathers 26,000 Black Shirts outside Rome & demands role in government
King (anti-communist) hands over Mussolini government without a single shot fired
What was the Acerbo Law in 1923?
assures a two-thirds majority for the party with the most votes
What are the Lateran Accords in 1929?
Catholic Church signs in order to ensure its survival, and Mussolini signs to receive an appearance of sanction by the Church (important because most Italians were practising Catholics)
What was the Ethiopian/Abyssinian incident?
Italian invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
Hoare-Laval Plan: Early form of 'appeasement' by Br. & Fr.
Failure of League of Nations & Collective Security
1935-39 - Mussolini makes Italy predominant in
Mediterranean-Red Sea Region
1939 - Annexation of Albania
Who were the Weimar Republic? What were its main features?
A federal government with national as well as state governments was established at Weimar.
Its main features were as follows:
Reichsrat: Weak Senate style body
Executive: Presidency (7 years) & a cabinet, headed by the chancellor
Who were the opposition to the Weimar Republic?
Spartacus League: Communists organized a march on Berlin to take power, a "putsch" (coup). Spartacus leaders arrested and shot.
Putsches: Rival political left and right-wing parties continued to challenge Weimar.
Munich Putsch, 1923 (Hitler)
Hitler arrested at 'Beer Hall' Putsch
Jailed; writes 'Mein Kampf
Who was the leader of the Weimar Republic?
Who are the Freikorps?
Ebert enlists a band of ex-servicemen as mercenaries (Freikorps) to control the political turmoil of Germany in 1919. These men had lived and fought in the trenches of WWI and were highly skilled and willing to fight.
What is the Key Concept of the Inflation Crisis in 1923?
Germany has no real democratic traditions and the slowness of the workings of a democracy often frustrated Germans who were accustomed to the ability of authoritarian government to appear efficient.
The losers of the Crisis were the middleclass as they didn't have any more savings.
Munich Putsch, what was it?
The Nazis' first attempt to take over power in 1923. They marched on Munich city halls but were put down by police and Hitler was arrested. After this event Hitler became leader of the Nazi party. (Mein Kampf)
Mein Kampf what is it?
"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924, in which he set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany
What is Aryanism?
Racial superiority of the Aryan or Nordic peoples.
Jews, Slaves, Africans and Gypsies, homosexuals and the disabled were at the other end of the human scale.
What does Lebensruam mean?
This was to become the foreign policy expression of the Aryan myth. It stated that "inferior nations" next-door to Germany would have to make room for the "superior" Germans. This applied to the 'Slav' peoples - the Russians to the east of Germany.
What were the NAZI parties views?
Repudiation of the Treaty of Versailles
Fanatical opposition to Communism
Who was Gustav Streseman?
Chancellor 1923; Foreign Minister 1924-29
Stresemann was able to stabilize some aspects of the German economy but unrest was constant and internal political challenges came consistently.
What was the Dawe's plan?
France can no longer insist on German compliance
Secures American loans to German reconstruction
Sees Allies withdraw from Ruhr region
These steps put Germany on the road to recovery
What was the Depression?
Black Tuesday: October 1929, Stock Market Crashes and Stresseman dead.
1932 - Ger. defaults on reparations payments:
In times of prosperity the Nazis gained little support. Their ideas were more suited to a populace that was dissatisfied.
What was the result of the Reichstag Fires?
1933 - Reichstag Fire;
1932 Elections see NAZI's lose seats to Communists
Reichstag Fire blamed on Communists
SA (Hitler's goons) suspected
Hindenburg annuls civil rights
4 000 communists arrested
Wall Street Crash what was it?
Black Tuesday -- October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed, generally agreed as the start of the Great Depression and certainly one of the biggest causes of the whole calamity
Hitler Youth, who were they?
Germany's young men and women who joined the Nazi political party and pledged their allegiance to Germany and Adolf Hitler. The Hitler Youth organization "brainwashed" the children and convinced them of German superiority.
Enabling Act what was it?
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament
What was the night of the long knives?
Night of the Long Knives;
SA a loose force that could challenge Hitler
June, 1934 - Roehm (leader of SA) arrested
NAZI purge - 85 confirmed executed, though estimates push total death toll much higher
'Wehrmacht' (army) pledges allegiance
Heinrich Himler who was he?
Commander of the Vaunted SS, also sets up the secret police called the Gestapo. Serves as the model for the future concentration camps.
Hermann Goering who was he?
head of the Luftwaffe and Gestapo, one of Hitler's most trusted advisors, Hitler's right-hand man.
Joseph Goebbels who was he?
Goebbels was head of Nazi propaganda and was instrumental in building hatred of the Jews.
What does Autarky mean?
Self-dependence & a 'closed economy'
What is the Autobahn?
A highway, you can whip it 350mph
Maginot line what is it?
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
League of Nations, what is it and what power did it hold?
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Define, Collective Security: and was it affective?
agreement by a group of nations to defend the other in case of an attack on any member. And no because no one believed/had fatih in it after the first world war.
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs. The USA was isolationist.
Manchurian Incident, what was it?
Japanese invasion of Manchuria;
Lytton Report (1932)
Japan must withdraw
Too far away from Europe to care
Mussolini sees League as lacking the will to apply 'collective security
Embargo on the invasion of Abyssinia, what did that do?
an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country. Sanctions do not include oil
what was the Hoare-Laval plan?
Hoare-Laval Plan - (secret agreement)
Br. & Fr. will give Mussolini what he desires
Hypocrisy: Br. & Fr. lead League sanctions
Self-interest (nationalism) vs. Internationalism
By punishing Italy (not really) and not helping Abyssinia they prove the worthlessness of the League of Nations and drive Italy to Germany
What was the Nuremburg laws?
The Nazis banned marriages between German and the 'undesirables', for example, gypsies, homosexuals, homeless and people of the Jewish religion.
What was the locarno pacts?
On heels of Dawes Plan (1924)
Streseman's cooperative approach
Guaranteed W. European borders
French forces to withdraw from
Rhineland (by 1930)
Britain guarantees Rhineland (Fr/Ger)
Germany's diplomatic rehabilitation
Eventual acceptance into League
What was the Lytton report?
Japan must withdraw
Too far away from Europe to care
Mussolini sees League as lacking the will to apply 'collective security'
What was the backround and result of the Spanish civil war?
Background: Weak Democratic Institutions
1930s - Republicans (Socialist)
vs. Nationalists (Conservative)
1936 - Spanish Officers attempt coup d'etat
of 'Popular Front' (Republican gov't)
Mussolini - Supports 'Nationalists'
Sends volunteers, Italian Navy & Munitions
Hitler - Supports 'Nationalists'
Sends air support
Stalin - Supports Republicans
Sends planes, tanks & Munitions (covertly)
Britain & France
What was the Anti-Cominterm pact?
Japanese seek German alliance - vs. USSR
Italy joins (1937)
What was the pact of steel?
Japan opts out - vs. USSR
Italy & Germany focus in on Br. & Fr.
Appeasement in Europe, what is appeasement?
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
Rhineland where is it?
An area in between Germany and France, demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles to become a buffer zone, Germany wasn't allowed within 30 miles of the river, Hitler wanted to take it back.
Anschluss, what is it?
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.
Neville Chamberlain what did he do and who was he?
1938; gullible British Prime Minister; declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland.
Nazi-Soviet non aggression pact, what was it and what did it allow?
signed by Hitler and Stalin, said that the Germans and Soviets would not fight each other/invade each other for 10 years, allowed the Germans to invade Poland soon after pact was signed.
Joseph Stalin who was he and what did he accomplish before world war 2?
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.
Russo-Japanese war what was it?
War between Russia and Japan; Japan wins and takes parts of Manchuria under its control.
Greater East Asian Prosperity Sphere what was it?
was an imperial propaganda concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations.
Sino-Japanese war what was it?
(1894) war fought between China and Japan for influence over Korea; Japan's victory symbolized its successful modernization.
Chiang Kai-Shek who was he?
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
who was Mao Zedong?
China, Founder of the Communist Party in China and responsible for the deaths of millions due to his bad economic policies and collective farms.
Rape of Nanking what was it?
infamous genocidal war crime committed by japanese military in Nanjing. started in 1937 and lasted a few weeks. japanese army raped, stole and killed prisoners of war and civilians.
General Francisco Franco who was he?
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany).
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