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General Psych, Kwan- Exam 2
Terms in this set (117)
A process by which behavior or knowledge changes as a result of experience
learning that is concerned with acquisition of problem-solving abilities and with intelligence and conscious thought.
the process by which an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned.
a learning principle that states that ideas and experiences reinforce each other and can be mentally linked to one another. In a nutshell, it means our brains were not designed to recall information in isolation; instead, we group information together into one associative memory.
A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learning
A reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus
A once neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
The learned response that occues to the conditioned stimulus
Emotional and physiological responses that develop to a specific type of object or situation
Conditioned emotional responses
What was the example used in class of conditioned emotional responses?
Little Albert, and how he learned to react to animals
The biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli
The acquired dislike or disgust of a food or drink because it was paired with illness
Conditioned taste aversion
What is a good example of how environmental cues can play along with physiological responses?
How drug use and tolerance is so often locational- drug users acclimate to wherever they administer, and therefore body begins prepping for the drug as soon as they are in that spot. Which is why overdoses so often occur in an unfamiliar area.
the first stages of learning when a response is established
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
A type of learning in which behavior is determined by consequences
What is the very general process of operant conditioning?
Reinforcement increases behavior, punishment decreases behavior
An event that follows a response and increases the likelihood of the response occurring again
A process that decreases the future probability of a response
Consist of reinforcing stimuli that acquire their value through learning
Consist of reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs
The strengthening of behavior after potential reinforcers such as praise, money, or nourishment follows that behavior
Involves the strengthening of a behavior because it removes or diminishes a stimulus
Occurs when a behavior decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular stimulus
A process in which a behavior decreases because it strengthens or increases a particular stimulus
A procedure in which a specific operant is created by reinforcing successive approximations of that response
Which type of process is used with developmental conditions, in order to shape desirable behaviors?
Applied behavior analysis
Rules that determine when reinforcement is available
Schedules of reinforcement
Type of reinforcement schedule where every response made results in reinforcement, like a vending machine
Reinforcement schedule where only a certain number of responses are rewarded, or a certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is awailable
Partial, or intermittent, reinforcement
What is an example of partial/intermittent reinforcement?
Lab rats pressing a lever repeatedly for drugs
What are the four types of reinforcement schedules?
Reinforcement schedule where reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed
Reinforcement schedule where the number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average
Reinforcement schedule that reinforces the first response occurring after a set amount of time passes
A schedule of reinforcement in which the first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time
What are the five principles which, when applied, make punishments most effective?
Initial punishment level
Principle of punishment where small transgressions should receive minor punishment, and large ones receive major punishment
Learning that is not immediately expressed by a response, until an organism is reinforced for doing so
Involves changes in behavior and knowledge that result from watching others
What is one example of observational learning?
A memory store with limited capacity and duration (less than a minute)
A memory store that holds information for extended periods of time, if not permanently
A memory store that accurately hold perceptual information for a very brief period of time
Visual form of sensory memory
How long is iconic memory normally retained?
0.5 to 1 second
Auditory form of sensory memory
How long is echoic memory normally retained?
About five seconds
Idea where most people will only recall the first few items from a list and the last few items, but only an item or two from the middle
Serial position effect
Along with the serial position effect, why are the first items normally remembered?
Primacy effect- makes most lasting impression. We just like to start from the beginning, basically.
Along with the serial position effect, why are the last items normally remembered?
The first information learned occupies mempory, leaving fewer resources left to remember the newer information?
The most recently learned information overshadows some older memories that have not yet made it into long-term memory
A model of short-term remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a short period of time.
A storage component of working memory that relies on rehearsal and stores information as sounds, or an auditory code
A storage component of working memory that maintains visual images and spatial layouts in visuospatial code
Storage component of working memory that combines the images and sounds from the other components into coherent, story-like episodes
What are some components of working memory?
Phonological loops, visuospatial sketchpad, and episodic buffer
The control center of working memory, coordinates attention and the exchange of information among the three storage components
Organizing smaller units of information into larger, more meaningful units
What are the two divisions of long-term memory?
Declarative and nondeclarative
What are the two divisions of declarative memory?
Semantic and episodic
What are the two divisions of non-declarative memory?
Procedural and conditioning
Memories that are conscious and can be verbalized, including facts about the world and one's own personal experiences
Declarative memories for personal experiences that seem to be organized around "episodes" and are recalled from a first-person perspective
Declarative memories that include facts about the world
Actions or behaviors that you can remember and perform without awareness
Patterns of muscle movements (motor memory)
Nondeclarative memories for how to behave, act, or respond to a given stimuli through conditioning that occurs without your explicit knowledge
Inability to remember what was already known at the onset of amnesia
Inability or limited ability to form new memories after the onset of amnesia
Prolonging exposure to information by repeating it
Prolonging exposure to information by thinking about its meaning
Predicts that retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the same context as encoding
Encoding specificity principle
What are the five divisions of the encoding specificity principle?
An extremely vivid and detailed memory about an event and its surrounding conditions
Are flashbulb memories more or less accurate than typical memories?
Neither- they're just as reliable
What is the most notable difference between the credibility of flashbulb memories?
Witnesses often believe them to be more credible, as they are more intense and focus on them is more frequent
Techniques that are intended to improve memory for specific information
What are four types of mnemonics?
method of loci
An organized cluster of memories that consitutes one's knowledge about events, objects, and ideas
A process by which we first recall a general schema and then add in specific details
Is organization inconsistent or consistent in reference to schema?
Is distinctiveness inconsistent or consistent in reference to schema?
What are some aspects of false memories?
Imagery and false memories
What could be somewhat surprising about the brain activity for false and true memories?
How similar it is
Memories of traumatic events that are suddenly recovered after being blocked for a long period of time
What is one issue with recovered memory?
The probability of prompting, and how they can be falsified by analysts to confirm own theories
The mental representation of an object, event, or idea
Clusters of interrelated concepts
Claims that objects or events are categorized according to a certain set of rules or frames
Mental representations of an average category member
Accomplishing a goal when the solution or path to the solution is not clear
A problem that has a clear initial state and goal state
A problem that may be lacking definition in one or more ways, such as an ambiguous initial state or a lack of familiar operators
Problem-solving strategy based on a series of rules
Problem-solving strategies that stem from prior experiences and provide an educated guess
Occurs when an individual identifies a potential operator, but can only think of its most obvious function
The mistaken belief that being in two overlapping categories is more likely than being in one of the larger, general categories
Entails estimating the frequency of an event based on how easily examples of it come to mind
What is one example of availability heuristic?
How sensationalizing by the media can lead us to overestimate the probability of uncommon events
Occurs when attempting to solve a problem involving numbers, by using previous knowledge to keep the response within a limited range
What are the two types of consumers?
Satisfiers, who quickly decide ("good enough") and maximizers, who evaluate every choice
Which type of consumer more frequently has continued approval of their own decision?
A form of communication that involves the use of spoken, written, or gestural symbols that are combined in a rule-based form
What are the unique features of leanguage?
1. Communicate objects and events in the past
2. Use it for imagination
3. Communicate time
4. Produce new meanings
5. Passed down naturally to children
The most basic units of speech sounds
Smallest meaningful units of a language
The study of how people come to understand the meaning of words
The rules for organizing words and morphemes into meaningful phrases and sentences
The study of nonlinguistic elements of language use
Area of brain for speech comprehension
Area of brain for speech production
Language disorders caused by damage to the language structures of the brain
When is the best time for humans to learn language?
The "sensitive period", where brains are primed to develop language skills. The ability fades starting in the seventh year of life, and the same goes for sign language
The ability to map words onto concepts or objects after only a single exposure
Reinforcer or inhibitor
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