the rich black topsoil found in the North European Plain, especially in Russia and Ukraine
an enormous farm in the Soviet Union on which a large team of laborers were gathered to work together during Joseph Stalin's reign.
The area encompassing the tops of the trees in a rain forest, about 150 feet above the ground
the emperor of Russia prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent creation of the Soviet Union in 1922
A crop grown for direct sale, and not for use in a region, such as coffee, tea, and sugar in Africa
A government in which the ruler's powers are limited by a constitution and the laws of a nation
A type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production
a kind of Algerian music developed in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast paced with danceable rhythms
a long, thin valley created by the moving apart of the continental plates, present in East Africa, stretching over 4,000 miles from Jordan in Southwest Asia to Mozambique in Southern Africa.
the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water to use for crops
to increase the variety of products in a country's economy; to promote manufacturing and other industries in order to achieve growth and stability
the general of the emperor's army with the powers of a military dictator, a position created by the Japanese emperor in 1192 after a struggle between two powerful clans
Georgian/Russian term for dinner party, with many dishes and courses, toasts, and short speeches.
one in which people use lineages, or families whose members are descended from a common ancestor, to govern themselves
flat land made of chemical salts that remain after winds evaporate the moisture in the soil
A place where water from an aquifer has reached the surface; it supports vegetation and wildlife
A giant ocean wave, caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption, with great destructive power
a form of government where religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and consultation with religious scholars
a nearly continuous belt of evergreen coniferous forests across the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and Eurasia
a country with rapid econmic growth due to cheap labor, high technology, and aggresive exports
a person with no permanent home who moves according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land
a policy of complete separation of the races, instituted by the white minority government of South Africa in 1948
land that is rich farmland, composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water
the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation.