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Final Review


the rich black topsoil found in the North European Plain, especially in Russia and Ukraine

Collective Farm

an enormous farm in the Soviet Union on which a large team of laborers were gathered to work together during Joseph Stalin's reign.


The area encompassing the tops of the trees in a rain forest, about 150 feet above the ground


the emperor of Russia prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent creation of the Soviet Union in 1922

Cash Crop

A crop grown for direct sale, and not for use in a region, such as coffee, tea, and sugar in Africa


An agricultural or mining product that can be sold

Constitutional Monarchy

A government in which the ruler's powers are limited by a constitution and the laws of a nation

Command Economy

A type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production


a kind of Algerian music developed in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast paced with danceable rhythms

Rift Valley

a long, thin valley created by the moving apart of the continental plates, present in East Africa, stretching over 4,000 miles from Jordan in Southwest Asia to Mozambique in Southern Africa.


riverbeds that remain dry except during the rainy seasons


An Islamic place of worship, where Muslims pray facing toward the holy city of Mecca


any of various geometric designs (usually circular) symbolizing the universe


A series of rulers from the same family


An expansion of dry conditions to moist areas that are next to deserts

Drip Irrigation

the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water to use for crops


The removal of salt from ocean water


to increase the variety of products in a country's economy; to promote manufacturing and other industries in order to achieve growth and stability


the general of the emperor's army with the powers of a military dictator, a position created by the Japanese emperor in 1192 after a struggle between two powerful clans


Georgian/Russian term for dinner party, with many dishes and courses, toasts, and short speeches.

Stateless Society

one in which people use lineages, or families whose members are descended from a common ancestor, to govern themselves

Salt Flat

flat land made of chemical salts that remain after winds evaporate the moisture in the soil

Storm Surge

high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas


A professional soldier in Japan who served the interests of landowners and clan chiefs


A place where water from an aquifer has reached the surface; it supports vegetation and wildlife


A giant ocean wave, caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption, with great destructive power


a form of government where religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and consultation with religious scholars


a nearly continuous belt of evergreen coniferous forests across the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and Eurasia


A tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific

Economic Tiger

a country with rapid econmic growth due to cheap labor, high technology, and aggresive exports


A broadened seaward end of a river, where the river's currents meet the ocean's tides


A steep slope with a nearly flat plateau on top


a person with no permanent home who moves according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land


a policy of complete separation of the races, instituted by the white minority government of South Africa in 1948

Alluvial Plain

land that is rich farmland, composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water


A set of closely grouped islands


A ringlike coral island or string of small islands surrounding a lagoon


A tent of Central Asia's nomads


The selling of government-owned businesses to private citizens

Fossil Water

Water pumped from underground aquifers

Caste System

the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation.


A violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; the most extreme weather pattern of South Asia

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