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58 terms


can act on one individual
natural selection
disorder presents in a system or organism
carbon is passed on from one level to another
limiting factor of photosynthesis
does not require light to carbohydrates but it does realese energy held in a chemical bond of hydrogen sulfer containing compounds in order to construct glucose from co2
consume food from other organisms because they are unable to synthesize their own carbohydrates
group of organisims linked by complex feeding relationships in which the flow of energy can be followed form primary producers though consumers
food web
in order to be useful for production of proteins and chlorophyll, the elemnet _______________must be bound with oxygen or hydrogen or fixed onto a usable chemical from by specialized organisms usually bacteria or cyanobacteria
rate at which energy-releasing reactions proceed within an organism/ increases with temperature.
metabolic rate
organisms whose internal temperature is determind by outside temoerature
fluids move through other fluids from zones of high concentration to zones of low concentration without necessarily passing through a semi-permeable membrane
4 major organic compounds that make up all living things
carbohydrates/nucleic acids/lipids/proteins
one of the major elements that make up 99% of the mass of all living things?
carbon nitrogen hydrogen oxygen
kingdom bacteria
at the base of euphotic zone -respirtaion equals photosynthesis -depth where, theoretically, organisms neither grow nor diminish -changes depending on time of day
compensation depth
amount of carbon "fixed" in a unit area per unit time; specifically the number of grams of elemental carbon bound into organic material per square meter per year
primary productivity
organisms liberate and utilize stored energy by disassembling carbohydrates in a process known as _______________
cellular respiration
difference in meaning between the photic qone and the euphotic zone: photosynthesis exceeds respiration in the euphotic zone but not always in the ___________
photic zone
common bioluminescence in the ocean
proccess of energy release by organisms is known as___________. involves the combining of carbohydrates and oxygen to from, carbon dioxide,engergy water
nonconservative nutrients are nutrients that change in concentration with biological activity. After a period of rapid phytoplankton growth, known as_____________the ocean surface waters are often depleted of nonconservative nutrients such as nitrates phosphates iron and silicates
plankton bloom
thought to be the ancestors of plants
organisms can grow at the deepest depths
form of marine community distribution is the most common one found in nature
not a member of a rocky intertidal marine community except for the
yellow-fin tuna
organism that has a narrow tolerance for changes in enviormental water salinity is said to be_____________while an organism that can adapt to a wide range of temperatures is said to be __________
high biodiversity within a community implies a wide viariety of species within a given area
complex interations amound organiss
following marine habitates which is most devoid of life
bathypelagic zone
symbotic interation between zooanthellea and coral polyps is a form of
mutualism in which both creatures benefit from the relationship
unlimited unchecked and unbridled exponential growth of a population of organisms prior to their feelin the effects of limiting factors is associated with what lettershaped graphical curve?
j shape
refers to the study of relationships amoung organisms interacting with their enviornment expecially within and between communities of creatures
nature very few populations reproduce at maximum rate because limiting factors in the enviornment quickly slow the rate of population growth. sum of the effects of these limiting factors in the enviornment is called
enviornmental resistance
found between highest high tide and lowest low tide
intertidal zone
powerful force of crashing waves
wave shock
adj used for organisms that permanently attach themselves to the substrate and are not free to move about
most common symbotic relationship
parasitism in which the symbiont gains at the host's expense
exclusive symbotic relationship that develops between two differing species for ex. parasites can usually parasitize only one species of host likely nearly all parasites nematodes have this relationship with their host
species specific relationship
natural methods exist for converting the kinetic energy of light into potential energy bound up in carbohydrates
daily tidal fluctions are caused by gravitational influences and the relative position between
the earth the sun the moon
los angeles san francisco and the entire coast of california experience what types of tides
mixed tides
the position and proximity of _______ is the biggest factor causing the tides
the moon
when taking about great waves such as tsunami tides and large seiches (surgewaves) the open water depth relative to the wavelength is less the L/2 therefore the waves are called
shallow water
a lunar day on earth is the time required for the moon to pass on observer on earth two times directly overhead it is ___________long
24 hours 50 min
spring tides occur when the earth the moon and the sun are
directly inline
__________occur when the moon the earth and the sun form a right angle
at the first and third quarter moons the sun earth moon create the high tides _____________low tides therefore the tidal range is minimized
lowest, highers
water moving into an enclosed basin due to an increase in sealevel as a tidal crest approaches is called
flood current
water rushing out of a basin due to a fall in sea level as the tidal through approaches is called
ebb current
adaptions of birds and where they evolved from
small fast running dinosaurs

adaptions: no bladder, oil glands, hollow bones,lungs and air sacs ,compact body, no teeth, 2 types of feather
steps of natural selection
-genetic mutation that causes vatiation
-more offspring are produce than can survive
-competition for resources
-traits has to be heritable
-has to increase fitness
advantages of endotherms
live anywhere because the control their own temp
advantges of ectotherms
conserve energy since body temp is determined by body temp
characteristics mammals
-have hair
-mammary glands
-give birth to live young
respiration and boyancy between shark and bony fish
shark: dont have opercula they have to swim to breath, no swim bladder, have a fatty liver

bony fish: have opercula that force water over their gills, have a swim bladder that allows them to float
noto cord, hollow dursal nerve cord, post anal tail, gill amphinians reptials, birds,mammals

fish:ecto 2 chamber heart
amp: ecto 3 chamber heart
reptials:ecto 2-3 heart
birds:endo 4 heart
mammals: endo 4 heart
oxygen revolution
levels of o2 rose 30% due to photosynthesis co2 levels decreased ozone was informed and protected life
diagram the flow of energy through the ecosystem
sun-->primary producers-->primary consumers-->primary consumers-->......heat is lost into space (ethrophy)
accessory pigments
light obsorbing compounds that absorb wavelength that chorophyll does not

they are benifical so algae can exist deeper in the ovean accessory pigments can be found in deep groing algae such as read algea