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can act on one individual

natural selection

disorder presents in a system or organism


carbon is passed on from one level to another


limiting factor of photosynthesis


does not require light to carbohydrates but it does realese energy held in a chemical bond of hydrogen sulfer containing compounds in order to construct glucose from co2


consume food from other organisms because they are unable to synthesize their own carbohydrates


group of organisims linked by complex feeding relationships in which the flow of energy can be followed form primary producers though consumers

food web

in order to be useful for production of proteins and chlorophyll, the elemnet _______________must be bound with oxygen or hydrogen or fixed onto a usable chemical from by specialized organisms usually bacteria or cyanobacteria


rate at which energy-releasing reactions proceed within an organism/ increases with temperature.

metabolic rate

organisms whose internal temperature is determind by outside temoerature


fluids move through other fluids from zones of high concentration to zones of low concentration without necessarily passing through a semi-permeable membrane


4 major organic compounds that make up all living things

carbohydrates/nucleic acids/lipids/proteins

one of the major elements that make up 99% of the mass of all living things?

carbon nitrogen hydrogen oxygen

kingdom bacteria


at the base of euphotic zone -respirtaion equals photosynthesis -depth where, theoretically, organisms neither grow nor diminish -changes depending on time of day

compensation depth

amount of carbon "fixed" in a unit area per unit time; specifically the number of grams of elemental carbon bound into organic material per square meter per year

primary productivity

organisms liberate and utilize stored energy by disassembling carbohydrates in a process known as _______________

cellular respiration

difference in meaning between the photic qone and the euphotic zone: photosynthesis exceeds respiration in the euphotic zone but not always in the ___________

photic zone

common bioluminescence in the ocean


proccess of energy release by organisms is known as___________. involves the combining of carbohydrates and oxygen to from, carbon dioxide,engergy water


nonconservative nutrients are nutrients that change in concentration with biological activity. After a period of rapid phytoplankton growth, known as_____________the ocean surface waters are often depleted of nonconservative nutrients such as nitrates phosphates iron and silicates

plankton bloom

thought to be the ancestors of plants


organisms can grow at the deepest depths


form of marine community distribution is the most common one found in nature


not a member of a rocky intertidal marine community except for the

yellow-fin tuna

organism that has a narrow tolerance for changes in enviormental water salinity is said to be_____________while an organism that can adapt to a wide range of temperatures is said to be __________


high biodiversity within a community implies a wide viariety of species within a given area

complex interations amound organiss

following marine habitates which is most devoid of life

bathypelagic zone

symbotic interation between zooanthellea and coral polyps is a form of

mutualism in which both creatures benefit from the relationship

unlimited unchecked and unbridled exponential growth of a population of organisms prior to their feelin the effects of limiting factors is associated with what lettershaped graphical curve?

j shape

refers to the study of relationships amoung organisms interacting with their enviornment expecially within and between communities of creatures


nature very few populations reproduce at maximum rate because limiting factors in the enviornment quickly slow the rate of population growth. sum of the effects of these limiting factors in the enviornment is called

enviornmental resistance

found between highest high tide and lowest low tide

intertidal zone

powerful force of crashing waves

wave shock

adj used for organisms that permanently attach themselves to the substrate and are not free to move about


most common symbotic relationship

parasitism in which the symbiont gains at the host's expense

exclusive symbotic relationship that develops between two differing species for ex. parasites can usually parasitize only one species of host likely nearly all parasites nematodes have this relationship with their host

species specific relationship

natural methods exist for converting the kinetic energy of light into potential energy bound up in carbohydrates


daily tidal fluctions are caused by gravitational influences and the relative position between

the earth the sun the moon

los angeles san francisco and the entire coast of california experience what types of tides

mixed tides

the position and proximity of _______ is the biggest factor causing the tides

the moon

when taking about great waves such as tsunami tides and large seiches (surgewaves) the open water depth relative to the wavelength is less the L/2 therefore the waves are called

shallow water

a lunar day on earth is the time required for the moon to pass on observer on earth two times directly overhead it is ___________long

24 hours 50 min

spring tides occur when the earth the moon and the sun are

directly inline

__________occur when the moon the earth and the sun form a right angle


at the first and third quarter moons the sun earth moon create the high tides _____________low tides therefore the tidal range is minimized

lowest, highers

water moving into an enclosed basin due to an increase in sealevel as a tidal crest approaches is called

flood current

water rushing out of a basin due to a fall in sea level as the tidal through approaches is called

ebb current

adaptions of birds and where they evolved from

small fast running dinosaurs

adaptions: no bladder, oil glands, hollow bones,lungs and air sacs ,compact body, no teeth, 2 types of feather

steps of natural selection

-genetic mutation that causes vatiation
-more offspring are produce than can survive
-competition for resources
-traits has to be heritable
-has to increase fitness

advantages of endotherms

live anywhere because the control their own temp

advantges of ectotherms

conserve energy since body temp is determined by body temp

characteristics mammals

-have hair
-mammary glands
-give birth to live young

respiration and boyancy between shark and bony fish

shark: dont have opercula they have to swim to breath, no swim bladder, have a fatty liver

bony fish: have opercula that force water over their gills, have a swim bladder that allows them to float


noto cord, hollow dursal nerve cord, post anal tail, gill amphinians reptials, birds,mammals

fish:ecto 2 chamber heart
amp: ecto 3 chamber heart
reptials:ecto 2-3 heart
birds:endo 4 heart
mammals: endo 4 heart

oxygen revolution

levels of o2 rose 30% due to photosynthesis co2 levels decreased ozone was informed and protected life

diagram the flow of energy through the ecosystem

sun-->primary producers-->primary consumers-->primary consumers-->......heat is lost into space (ethrophy)

accessory pigments

light obsorbing compounds that absorb wavelength that chorophyll does not

they are benifical so algae can exist deeper in the ovean accessory pigments can be found in deep groing algae such as read algea

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