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Chapter 23 Lesson Review
Terms in this set (22)
Describe the importance of urbanization to the growth of industrial capitalism in Great Britain.
It expanded it economy because new ways to weave cotton and refine iron. Iron was used to build an expanse of railways throughout Great Britain. Iron became a major export and Great Britain made more iron than the rest of the world combined. All this manufacturing was done in Factories that sprang up across the country. Many farmers moved into the city to work in these new factories.
Discuss the major inventors and inventions covered in this lesson.
James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which spun cotton through steam or water power. Edmund Cartwright made a machine that weaved cotton and allowed workers to catch up with the spinning Jenny. James Watt created a steam engine that was used to power the cotton spinners and weavers. Henry Cort created a process called puddling which created high quality iron. Richard Trevithick created the first steam powered locomotive to transport iron to the sea. Robert Fulton created the first paddle wheel steamboat to travel the waterways of the United States.
What was the significance of the Agricultural Revolution in Great Britain?
There was an expansion of farmland and new crops from the new world were planted (potato). Increased transportation and good weather allowed food to be cheaper throughout England.
Why did the Industrial Revolution start in Great Britain?
They produced more food to feed everyone in the country and increased the city sizes. Many peasant moved into the cities creating a shortage of jobs and England had lots of money it was ready to invest in its country. There was an abundance of resources in the country and from all of its colonies.
What factors fed the spread of industrialization in Europe and North America?
Great Britain was extremely wealthy from its industrial revolution and it slowly spread across the English channel to continental Europe. All of the inventions were already invented and the government poured vast amounts of money into railroads which connected the rest of Europe.
What was the social impact of industrialization in Europe?
Factories also sprung up and were filled with peasants who had left their farming lifestyles and moved to the city, increasing the various city populations. The gap between the rich and the poor grew smaller as the middle class became the factory owners and developed markets. Women and children were called to the workplace and eventually labor laws were put into place to protect the workers from the dangerous environments. Early ideas of Socialism sprang up and many attempted to create utopian societies.
Define the term universal male suffrage and give examples of when it affected the revolutions of 1848.
Universal male suffrage means all men can vote regardless of status or wealth. This affected both the French revolution and the German states unifying. The french removed their king in hopes of making a democracy, while the Germans wanted a limited monarchy, and a parliament with elections.
Discuss the similarities and differences between the revolutions of the 1830s and 1848.
The revolutions of the 1830s sought to remove themselves from a foreign power, and to establish their own countries. The revolutions of 1848 were to allow all men to vote and to unify many states together under one banner again. France had a revolution during each of these time periods and the goal remained the same: to make the king have less power, to make changes for the betterment of the people, and to let the poor/all men to have rights.
How did liberalism and nationalism present a challenge to conservatism in Europe during the 1830s and 1840s?
People were beginning to shift their loyalty to their country and origins rather than a monarch or foreign power. They all sought to build up their own countries, and let all men have equal rights. This was a challenge because the current monarchs did not like this and wanted to control as much land as possible.
What were the results of the revolutionary uprisings that occurred throughout Europe in 1848?
Most of them completely failed or just displaced the ruler for a short amount of time. The rebels were all divided on their goals and ended up fighting one another instead of the conservatist governments.
Argue for or against the following statement: The revolutions of the 1830s ultimately failed.
They failed in the present and did not become unified with one another, or change at all. However, they showed the growing movements of nationalism, liberalism, and conservatism, and allowed reforms to be made at home and abroad.
What was the Civil War? Define the terms emancipation and abolitionism. Indicate relationships between these terms.
The civil war was a war between Northern and Southern Americans. The South wanted to continue using slave labor since slaves helped their cotton industries boom, while the North believed in abolitionism, a movement to end slavery. Eventually, the North won and ended slavery through the emancipation proclamation which set all of the slaves free.
Describe the changes and conflicts that took place in Great Britain, France, the Austrian Empire, and Russia during the nineteenth century.
In Great Britain, workers wages grew, and more men were allowed to vote. In France, a second empire began, but quickly fell after the loss against the Prussians. Austria lost to the Prussians, and the Hungarians took control of the situation and demanded that Hungary have its own separate monarchy. Russia lost in the Crimean peninsula and desperately tried to catch up with the industrial revolution in the rest of Europe.
What led to the unification of Italy and Germany after the revolution of 1848?
Austria was weakened by not helping its ally Russia, and after Russia lost, the Austrians were enemies of the rest of the European powers and the Russian pulled out of European politics. The major powers that had stopped there unification were crippled. The Italian states raised an army and had the French help them throw out the Russians. In Southern Italy, a military leader by the name of Giuseppe Garibaldi took over Sicily and united Southern Italy, which he then gave to Piedmont in Northern Italy. In Germany, Prussia was a dominant power, and when Bismarck became the leader, he declared war on France, won new lands, and convinced all of the Germanic states to join him in a new Germany.
What were the political climates in Great Britain, France, Austria, and Russia?
In Russia, serfdom were ended, but all of the freed serfs got the poor producing lands and conditions for them did not change much. Reformers wanted even more change but, the Russian czar was un-wanting to give it to them, and turned to older methods of repression. In Great Britain, more men were allowed to vote, and Queen Victoria came to power giving way to the Victorian Era. In France a second empire came into power.
How did nationalism influence events in the United States during the 1800s?
The North and the South had contrasting views on slave labor while the Federalists and Republicans fought on how much power the government should have. Each of these groups believed in America, and thought that their viewpoints would make it stronger. Their opinions began to contrast so much, that eventually a civil war broke out.
Evaluate the nineteenth-century social reforms that took place in Great Britain, Russia, and the United States. Were the reforms successful? Did they contribute to the stability of these nations?
In Great Britain, parliament allowed more men to vote and helped increase the working class wages. These reforms were enough to not led Great Britain go through a civil war. In Russia, all serfs were let free and given land. However, they received the worst patches of land and remained unhappy. These reforms were not successful and the czar was murdered. In the United States, slaves were freed, but not without a civil war that divided the nation.
How did the concepts of natural selection and secularization demonstrate a changing worldview?
People were turning towards science for answers and away from religion. People began to look for human existence through scientific studies. Science became the new platform for reason. Charles Darwin wrote about natural selection, stating that we all evolved from something and life and evolution are all about survival of the fittest. God began to lose a role in the creation of man.
Contrast the characteristics of romanticism and realism in literature.
Romanticism sought to create emotion through its work. It focused on the middle ages and fantasized about reality. Realism sought to be direct and accurate. Nothing was too bland and it depicted everyday life. Realists wrote novels rather than poems.
How did the ideas of romanticism differ from those of the Enlightenment?
Romanticism valued uniqueness and evoked emotion and imagination. The enlightenment had focused on thought and reason while romanticism thought emotions were the guide to learning. It stressed individuality and often people would rebel against common styles to show this.
How did advances in science influence life during the Industrial Revolution?
Everyone now had seen the benefits of science, and science began to fit in more with everyday life. More was understood about the world that we live in. Science also took many people away from religion as truth was to be found in the concrete matters of human existence.
What factors contributed to the movement known as realism?
The scientific revolution helped realism portray life as it really was. People began to look for concrete thinking rather than abstract, and addressed and wrote about everyday problems rather than fantasizing. Artist painted pictures of factories. A famous French artist named Gustave Courbet said, "I have never seen angels or goddesses, so I am not interested in painting them."
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