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Terms in this set (246)
motion is _____ to recognize.
a quantity divided by time
speed velocity acceleration
3 types of rates
a straight line path
moving with respect
a measure of how fast something is moving
the rate at which distance is being covered
terms of distance divided by a unit of time
divided by or /
the speed at any instant
not everything has a
speed in a given direction
constant speed constant direction
constant velocity requires
if either _______ or ________ is changing, then the velocity is changing
___________ changes in velocity because the direction is changing every single instant
the quantity that requires both magnitude and direction for a complete description is a vector quantity
a quantity that is completely described by magnitude.
a _______, which is an arrow, is used to represent the magnitude and direction of a vector quantity.
The length of the arrow, drawn to scale, indicates the _______ of the vector quantity.
The ______ of the arrow indicates the direction of the vector quantity.
The result of adding two vectors, called the ______, is the diagonal of the rectangle described by the two vectors.
The pair of a vertical and horizontal vector are known as the __________ of the given vector they replace.
The process of determining the components of a vector is called __________.
the combination of all forces acting on an object
state of motion
in absence of a net force, object don't change their
when the net force equals zero or the object is at rest
another name for support force
the result of two forces added together
a change in motion
to increase acceleration of an object, you must increase the ________ acting on it.
the acceleration produced is _________ to the mass
two values change in opposite directions
the acceleration produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
newton's second law
if the net force and mass is doubled, then the acceleration is
x2 net force = x2 acceleration. x2 mass = ____ acceleration
in contact direction oppose
friction acts on objects that are _______ with each other and always acts in a _______ to _______ motion.
friction occurs in liquids and gases which are both called
fluid friction occurs as an object ________ the fluid it is moving through
air resistance fluid friction
the friction acting on something moving through air. common type of _______.
the amount of force per unit of area
unit of pressure
one newton per square meter is equal to ____ pascals
falling objects accelerate _______, regardless of their _______
ten times as much _____ produces the same acceleration as the _____ force acting on the smaller mass
air resistance diminishes the _______ acting on the objects
acceleration terminates when an object reaches its
when acceleration reaches its terminal speed and has direction (down for falling objects)
______ objects fall to the ground faster than ______ objects
air resistance at low speeds are often _______ and high speeds make quite a _______
a ______ is not a thing in itself but part of a mutual action, _________, between one thing and another
whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object
newton's third law
to every action there is always an opposing reaction
how newton's third law is often stated
two forces (3rd law)
the action and reaction force are _______ of a single ________ and that neither force exists without the other
force required to lift an object
pair oppositely directed forces equal strength
for every interaction between things, there is always a _____ of ________ that are _____ in ________
inertia in motion or the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity.
mass velocity both
if the momentum of an object changes, either the _____ or the _____ or ______ change.
unchanged velocity acceleration
if the mass remains ________, as is most often the case, the ________ changes and _________ occurs.
greater greater greater
the _____ the force acting on an object, the _____ its change in velocity, and hence, _____ its change in momentum.
change in momentum
impact refers to a ______ and is measured in ______.
measurement of impulse
time during which your momentum is brought to zero.
energy transferred transformed
everything has _______ but the effects can only be seen when it is being ________ or ______.
when a load is lifted against earth's gravity
two things enter into every case where work is done:
1) the ______ of force
2) the ______ of something by that force
work involves two things
against another force change the speed
work generally falls into two categories:
1) work is done ______________.
2) work is done to ____________ of an object.
work is done when the object is forced to move against the influence of another force, often
unit of work
rate at which work is done
unit of power
watt= ___ J of of work is done in ___ second
the energy due to the postion of something or the movement of something
mechanical energy can be in the form of two types of energy
the energy that is stored and held in readiness
gravitational potential energy
the potential energy due to elevated positions
the amount of GPE possessed by an elevated object is equal to the ______ done against _____ for lifting it
a moving object that is capable of doing work and has energy of motion
mass speed half square
the KE of an object depends on the ______ as well as its ______. it's equal to _____ the mass multiplied by the ________ of the speed
the KE of a moving object is equal to the work required to bring it to that speed from _____, or the _____ the object can do while being brought to rest.
if the speed is squared, the kinetic energy is
energy cannot be created or destroyed. it can only be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. it can be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.
law of conservation of energy
high temperature welding of atomic nuclei
device used to multiply forces or simply change the direction of forces. concept that underlies every machine is the conservation of energy.
simple machine that you do work on one side and the other end does the work on the load. the direction is also changed
pivot point of a simple machine
ratio of output force to input force for a machine
input distance output distance
neglecting friction, the MA can also be determined by the ratio of _______ to _______.
type one lever
fulcrum between the force and load, or between input and output forces.
type two lever
load between the fulcrum and input force
for a type two lever, to lift the _____, ____ the end of a lever.
type three lever
fulcrum at one end, load at another
for a type three lever, the _________ is in between them.
for a type three lever, it _____ the distance at expense of force.
basically a kind of a lever that can be used to change the direction of a force
number of strands that actually support the load.
the MA for simple pulley machines is the same as the
what is put into it
no machine can put out more energy than
no machine can create
machine with 100% accuracy but never and can't expect it to happen
ratio of useful work output to total work input or AMA to TMA
efficiency will always be a fraction or decimal
only green plants and certain one-celled organisms can produce carbon dioxide with water to produce hydrocarbon compounds
energy input for photosynthesis
center of gravity
the point located at the objects average position of weight.
center of mass average position
CG is often called _______, which is the ________ of all the particles of mass that make up an object.
remain upright topple
if the CG of an object is above the area of support, the object will ________. If the center of gravity extends outside the area of support, the object will ________.
object balanced so that any displacement lowers its CG.
an object that is balanced so that any displacement raises its CG.
when an object's CG is neither raised nor lowered with displacement.
protons neutrons electrons nucleus
atoms are made of
the nucleus is made of
what atoms of the same kind make up
more than _____ elements are known.
lightest element? second lightest element?
the perpetual jiggling of particles that are just large enough to see
atoms can combine to form larger particles.
a substance that is made of atoms of different elements combined in a fixed proportion.
the ________ of a compound tells the proportions of each kind of atom?
almost all of an atom's mass is packed into the
the principal building blocks of the nucleus.
nucleons in an electrically neutral state.
nucleons in an electrically charged state.
atoms of the same element having different number of neutrons.
atoms are classified by _______. the number of protons in the nucleus.
when the number of electrons is more, or less, than the number of protons in an atom, the atom is no longer neutral and has a net charge.
attraction between a proton and an electron can cause a bond between atoms to form a
a chart that lists atoms by their atomic number and by their electron arrangements.
elements in the same column belong to the same ______ of elements. elements of the same ____ have similar chemical properties because their outermost electrons are arranged in a similar fashion.
solid liquid gas plasma
four phases of matter
regular geometric shapes. mineral samples are made of them.
measure of how tightly the material is packed together. how much matter is squished into a given space.
ratio mass volume
density is a _____; it is the amount of ______ per unit _______.
the standard measure of density
when something goes back to its original shape after being stretching or compression
property of body by which it experiences a change in shape when a deforming force acts on it, and by which it returns to its original shape when the deforming force is applied and then removed.
materials that do not resume their original shape after being distorted.
the amount of stretch or compression is directly proportional to the applied force.
the distance at which permanent distortion occurs.
between the top and bottom of the beam, there will be a region where there is neither stretching nor compression.
the top and bottom of the beam.
the piece joining the flanges, which is thinner.
heavier loads are supported by
how size affects the relationship between weight, strength, and surface area.
as an object grows, its surface area and volume grow at different rates; the ratio of surface area to volume
a wiggle in time
a wiggle in space and time.
the time of a back-and-forth swing of a pendulum.
the period only depends on the ______ of the pendulum and the acceleration of ________.
a long pendulum has a _____ period than a shorter pendulum.
simple harmonic motion
the back-and-forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum.
when the conveyor belt is moving at a constant speed, the and traces out a special curve.
the high points of a wave.
the low points of a wave.
straight dashed line
represents the "home" position, or the midpoint of the vibration.
the distance from the midpoint to the crest (or trough) of the wave is called the ________.
maximum displacement from equilibrium.
the distance from the top of one crest to the top of the next one.
how frequent a vibration occurs.
a complete back-and-front vibration is one _____.
one vibration one cycle two vibrations two cycles
if a cycle occurs in one second, the frequency is ________ per cycle or ______ per second. If two vibrations occur in a second, the frequency is ________ or ________ per second.
unit of frequency.
one cycle per second is ___ Hz and two cycles per second is ____ Hz.
something that vibrates
the source of all waves
low frequencies have _____ wavelengths and high frequencies have _____ wavelengths.
frequency and wavelengths _________ to produce the same wave speed for all sounds.
the motion of the medium is at right angles to the direction in which a wave travels.
particles moving along the direction of the wave rather than at right angles to it.
up down in out
transverse waves are formed by shaking the medium _______ and longitudinal waves are formed by shaking the medium ________.
when two material objects create the same types of waves at the same time, the waves produced by each can overlap and form
constructive interference reinforcement
when the crest of one wave overlaps the crest of another; the result of increased amplitude.
destructive interference cancellation.
when the crest of one wave overlapping the trough of another; the high part of one wave simply fills in the low part of another.
out of phase
when the waves of two objects arrive "out of step", they are ________ with each other.
when two waves arrive "in step" with each other, they are ______ with each other.
by shaking the medium, the incident (original) and reflected waves to form
in a standing wave, certain parts of the rope, called the ______, remain ________.
positions on a standing wave with the largest amplitudes are known as _____ and they occur halfway between ______.
the change in frequency due to the motion of the source (or receiver).
the greater the speed of the source, the ______ the Doppler effect will be.
an increase in frequency is called
a decrease in frequency is called a
faster than sound
the crests overlap at edges, and the pattern made by these overlapping crests is a V shape.
produced by overlapping spheres that form a cone.
the sharp crack that the listeners on the ground hear when the conical shell of compressed air that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches them.
it will make sound
once an object is moving faster than the speed of sound
the frequency of sound
sound waves with frequencies below 20 hertz
sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 hertz
pulse of compressed air
the time of disturbance
the transmission of sound requires a
unit of intensity for sound
the vibration of an object that is made to vibrate by another vibrating object
the frequency at which an elastic object tends to vibrate, so that minimum energy is required to produce a forced vibration or continue vibration at that frequency.
when the frequency of a forced vibration on an object matches the object's natural frequency, a dramatic increase in amplitude occurs.
periodic variation in the loudness of sound
beats are heard when two slightly mismatched tuning forks are __________
when a wave reaches a boundary between two media, some or all the wave bounces back into the first medium.
when waves strick the surface of a medium at an angle, their direction changes as they enter the second medium.
angle of incidence
the angle made by the incident ray and the normal
angle of reflection
the angle made by the reflected ray and the normal
angle of incidence = angle of reflection
law of reflection
a mirror that curves outward.
a mirror that curves inward.
a copy of an object formed at the point where light rays actually meet.
an image that forms at a location from which light rays appear to come but do not actually come.
when light is incident on a rough surface, it is reflected in many directions.
slower (or faster)
water waves similarly bend when one part of each wave is made to travel ________ than another part.
as a light wave passes from air into water, its speed _______. the refracted ray is closer to the ________ than is the incident ray.
the separation of light into colors arranged according to their frequency.
the smallest angle of incidence for which light is totally reflected.
total internal reflection
the complete reflection that takes place within a substance when the angle of incidence of light striking the surface boundary is less than the critical angle.
a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images.
lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus.
a lens such that a parallel beam of light passing through it is caused to diverge or spread out.
the line joining the center of curvature of its surfaces.
the point at which a beam of parallel light, parallel to the principal axis, converges.
The area at the focal length of a lens or concave mirror on which an extended object is focused.
the distance from a lens to its focus.
shows the principal rays that can be used to determine the size and location of an image.
eyes that form images behind the retina; eyeball is too short.
eyes that are focused too near the lens, in front of the retina; eyeball is too long.
electric pressure that can produce a charge within a conductor.
the resistance that the conductor offers to flow of charge.
when electric flow takes places along one direction.
a flow of electric charge that regularly reverses its direction.
difference in potential (voltage), across the ends of a conductor.
the flow of electric charge.
unit for electric current
something that provides a potential difference in electric current.
the current in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage impressed across the circuit, and is inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit.
a complete path from the positive terminal at the top of the battery to the negative terminal, which is the bottom of the battery.
connection of components in such a manner that current flows first through one and then through the other.
a circuit having its parts connected serially.
electrical devises connected in parallel are connected to the same two points of an electric circuit.
simple diagrams of electric circuits.
lines that carry more than a safe amount of current
to prevent overloading in circuits, ______ are connected in series along the supply line.
circuits may also be protected by _________, which use magnets or bimetallic strips to open the switch.
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