34 terms

Water science

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Acid rain
When rainwater dissolves acidic gases from the atmosphere it forms this.
Acidic
A substance with a pH below 7 eg lemon juice
Alkaline
A substance with a pH above 7 eg. ammonia
Aquifer
A pathway that water takes. E.g a stream or river.
Boil
To change a liquid into a gas.
Brackish
Water which contains some dissolved salts making it unsuitable for drinking.
Carbon dioxide
A gas which we breathe out and is found in the atmosphere. When it dissolves in rainwater it makes the rain slightly acidic.
Carbonic acid
A weak acid formed when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water.
Catalytic converter
A device fitted to the exhaust pipe of a car which removes the oxides of nitrogen and sulphur from the exhaust gases.
Condensation
The process of water vapor in the air turning into liquid water. Water drops on the outside of a cold glass of water are condensed water. Condensation is the opposite process of evaporation.
Element
One of the substances which make up matter
Evaporation
The process of liquid water becoming water vapor, including vaporization from water surfaces, land surfaces, and snow fields, but not from leaf surfaces.
Evapotranspiration
It is defined as the water lost to the atmosphere from the ground surface, evaporation from the capillary fringe of the groundwater table, and the transpiration of groundwater by plants whose roots tap the capillary fringe of the groundwater table.
Freshwater storage
water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids is found here; generally, more than 500 mg/L of dissolved solids is undesirable for drinking and many industrial uses.
Ground-water discharge
Some of the precipitation that falls onto the land infiltrates into the ground to become ground water. Once in the ground, some of this water travels close to the land surface and emerges very quickly as discharge into streambeds, but, because of gravity, much of it continues to sink deeper into the ground. If the water meets the water table (below which the soil is saturated), it can move both verticall
Ground-water storage
Large amounts of water are storedhere. The water is still moving, possibly very slowly, and it is still part of the water cycle. Most of the water here comes from precipitation that infiltrates downward from the land surface. Another term for this is "aquifer," although this term is usually used to describe water-bearing formations capable of yielding enough water to supply peoples' uses. Aquifers are a huge storehouse of Earth's water and people all over the world depend on it in their daily lives.
Impure
The condition of water when something is dissolved in it.
Infiltration
The flow of water from the land surface into the subsurface.
Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen
These gases are produced on burning oil and coal and cause ar pollution leading to acid rain.
pH
A measure of how acidic or alkaline a substance is
Precipitation
This is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. It is the primary connection in the water cycle that provides for the delivery of atmospheric water to the Earth. Most of it falls as rain.
residue
The solid material left behind after water is evaporated
Save
What we have to do with water so that we have enough.
Snowmelt runoff to streams
This is a major component of the global movement of water. Of course,its importance varies greatly geographically, and in warmer climates it does not directly play a part in water availability. In the colder climates, though, much of the springtime streamflow in rivers is attributable to this.
Springs
A water resource formed when the side of a hill, a valley bottom or other excavation intersects a flowing body of ground water at or below the local water table, below which the subsurface material is saturated with water.
Storage in ice and snow
By storage, we mean water that is locked up in its present state for a relatively long period of time. Short-term storage might be days or weeks for water in a lake, but it could be thousands of years for deep ground-water storage or even longer for water at the bottom of an ice cap, such as in Greenland.
Streamflow
The amount of water flowing in a river.
Sublimation
The conversion between the solid and the gaseous states of matter, with no intermediate liquid stage.
Surface runoff
Much of the water in rivers comes directly from this from the land surface.
Universal indicator
A liquid which indicates the pH of a liquid based on the colour it produces with the liquid.
Water cycle
The pathway that water takes through clouds, land and sea
Water storage in oceans
The water cycle sounds like it is describing how water moves above, on, and through the Earth ... and it does. But, in fact, much more water is "in storage" for long periods of time than is actually moving through the cycle. The storehouses for the vast majority of all water on Earth are here.
Water storage in the atmosphere
The water cycle is all about storing water and moving water on, in, and above the Earth. Although it may not be a great storehouse of water, it is the superhighway used to move water around the globe. Evaporation and transpiration change liquid water into vapor, which ascends into here due to rising air currents. Cooler temperatures aloft allow the vapor to condense into clouds and strong winds move the clouds around the world until the water falls as precipitation to replenish the earthbound parts of the water cycle. About 90 percent of water stored here is produced by evaporation from water bodies, while the other 10 percent comes from transpiration from plants.
Water vapour
The form of water as a gas
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