Psychology helps marketers understand why and how consumers behave as they do. In particular, psychological concepts
such as motivation and personality, perception, learning, values,
beliefs and attitudes, and lifestyle are useful for interpreting
buying processes. Motivation is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. Personality refers to a person's
consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations. Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes,
and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the
world. Consumers filter information through selective exposure, comprehension, and retention.
Much consumer behavior is learned. Learning refers to those
behaviors that result from (a) repeated experience and (b) reasoning. Brand loyalty results from learning. Values, beliefs, and attitudes are also learned and influence how consumers evaluate
products, services, and brands. A more general concept is lifestyle. Lifestyle, also called psychographics, combines psychology
and demographics and focuses on how people spend their time
and resources, what they consider important in their environment,
and what they think of themselves and the world around them.
Kerin (2014-01-15). Marketing (Page 133). McGraw-Hill Education. Kindle Edition.
Sociocultural influences, which evolve from a consumer's formal and informal relationships with other people, also affect consumer behavior. These involve personal influence, reference groups, the family, social class, culture, and subculture.
Opinion leadership and word-of-mouth behavior are two major
sources of personal influence on consumer behavior. Reference groups are people to whom an individual looks as a basis
for self-approval or as a source of personal standards. Family
influences on consumer behavior result from three sources:
consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle,
and decision making within the family or household. A more
subtle influence on consumer behavior than direct contact
with others is the social class to which people belong. Persons within social classes tend to exhibit common values,
attitudes, beliefs, lifestyles, and buying behaviors. Finally, a
person's culture and subculture have been shown to influence
product preferences and buying patterns.
Kerin (2014-01-15). Marketing (Page 134). McGraw-Hill Education. Kindle Edition.