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All the flashcards from second semester that will be on the final.

phase change

a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition

melting point

the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid

boiling point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas


A system for the measurement of temperature with 32 degrees being the freezing point of water and 212 being the boiling point. { 9/5 x C + 32 }


Metric temperature scale on which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees. {(F-32) x 5/9}

Absolute zero

A temperature of 0 kelvins

Kinetic theory of gases

the constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to fill a container of any shape or size


A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance


the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface [atm]

gas density

Gases have low density because a great deal of space exists between the gas particles


the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas


the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas


The change of state from a gas to a liquid


the change in state from a liquid to a solid


The change of state from a solid to a liquid


the unit used to measure atmospheric pressure; the abbreviation is atm.

Directly proportional

A property of two variables that change in the same direction

Inversely proportional

The relationship between two variables whose product is constant

Number density

the number of particles in a given volume of space


an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure using mercury


the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12


Standard Temperature Pressure (273K & 1atm)

Avogradro's law

law that states that the volume (V) occupied by an ideal gas at constant temperature (T) and pressure (P) is proportional to the number of moles (n) of a gas present.

Avogdro's number

6.02 X 10^23 number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 isotopes.

Ideal gas law

Law that states the math relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R), and the number of moles of a gas (n) {PV=nRT}

Charles's law

The law that states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas when pressure is constant {k=V/T}

Gay-Lussac's law

The law that states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is constant {k=P/T}

Combined gas law

The law that describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas {k=PV/T}


The SI base unit for temperature; C+273

Boyle's law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases. [P1V1 = P2V2]

Universal gas constant

constant that relates pressure, volume, temperature and number of moles of gas in an ideal gas law;
0.08206 L atm/ K mol


a number placed in front of a chemical formula to make the number of atoms on each side of a chemical equation equal.


a number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound

Combination reaction

a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance

Decomposition reaction

a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

Single exchange reaction

A + BC = AC + B

Double exchange reaction

AB + CD = AD + CB


A chemical dose lethal to 50% of a test population

Actual value

The real value excepted by all scientist

Experimental value

the value measured in the lab

Scientific notation

A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.

Standard notation

A number written without exponents: an integer or a decimal fraction.

Molar mass

the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance


mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed


the dissolved substance in a solution


The substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution


concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent

Saturated solution

a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions

Arrhenius acid

Produces H+ ions when dissolved in water

Arrhenius base

Produces OH- ions when dissolved in water

Bronsted-Lowry acid

a substance that donates a proton to another substance

Bronsted-Lowry base

a substance that accepts a proton


pH of 7

pH scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14


a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance

Strong acid/base

dissociates completely when mixed with water

Weak acid/base

substance that produces few ions when dissolved in water


the process of adding a solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution

Neutralization reaction

the reaction of an acid and a base to form a neutral solution of water and a salt

Equivalence point

the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts


The relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound

Mole ratio

In a balanced equation, the ratio between the numbers of moles of any two substances.

Limiting reactant

the reactant that limits the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction


A rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that creates thermal energy


the system releases energy to its surroundings


the system absorbs energy from its surroundings


the ability to do work or cause change in matter


a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation


everything else in the universe beside the system


the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures

Thermal equilibrium

The state of two or more objects or substances in thermal contact when they have reached a common temperature

Thermal energy

the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance


amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius

Specific heat capacity

the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius

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