74 terms

# FinalExam!

All the flashcards from second semester that will be on the final.
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phase change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
melting point
the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid
boiling point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
Farenheit
A system for the measurement of temperature with 32 degrees being the freezing point of water and 212 being the boiling point. { 9/5 x C + 32 }
Celcius
Metric temperature scale on which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees. {(F-32) x 5/9}
Absolute zero
A temperature of 0 kelvins
Kinetic theory of gases
the constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to fill a container of any shape or size
temperature
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance
pressure
the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface [atm]
gas density
Gases have low density because a great deal of space exists between the gas particles
sublimation
the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
freezing
the change in state from a liquid to a solid
melting
The change of state from a solid to a liquid
atmospheres
the unit used to measure atmospheric pressure; the abbreviation is atm.
Directly proportional
A property of two variables that change in the same direction
Inversely proportional
The relationship between two variables whose product is constant
Number density
the number of particles in a given volume of space
Barometer
an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure using mercury
mole
the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
STP
Standard Temperature Pressure (273K & 1atm)
law that states that the volume (V) occupied by an ideal gas at constant temperature (T) and pressure (P) is proportional to the number of moles (n) of a gas present.
Avogdro's number
6.02 X 10^23 number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 isotopes.
Ideal gas law
Law that states the math relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R), and the number of moles of a gas (n) {PV=nRT}
Charles's law
The law that states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas when pressure is constant {k=V/T}
Gay-Lussac's law
The law that states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is constant {k=P/T}
Combined gas law
The law that describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas {k=PV/T}
Kelvin
The SI base unit for temperature; C+273
Boyle's law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases. [P1V1 = P2V2]
Universal gas constant
constant that relates pressure, volume, temperature and number of moles of gas in an ideal gas law;
0.08206 L atm/ K mol
Coeffcient
a number placed in front of a chemical formula to make the number of atoms on each side of a chemical equation equal.
subscript
a number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound
Combination reaction
a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance
Decomposition reaction
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
Single exchange reaction
A + BC = AC + B
Double exchange reaction
AB + CD = AD + CB
LD50
A chemical dose lethal to 50% of a test population
Actual value
The real value excepted by all scientist
Experimental value
the value measured in the lab
Scientific notation
A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.
Standard notation
A number written without exponents: an integer or a decimal fraction.
Molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
solution
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
solvent
The substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
Molarity
concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
Saturated solution
a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions
Arrhenius acid
Produces H+ ions when dissolved in water
Arrhenius base
Produces OH- ions when dissolved in water
Bronsted-Lowry acid
a substance that donates a proton to another substance
Bronsted-Lowry base
a substance that accepts a proton
neutral
pH of 7
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
Indicator
a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
Strong acid/base
dissociates completely when mixed with water
Weak acid/base
substance that produces few ions when dissolved in water
Dilution
the process of adding a solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution
Neutralization reaction
the reaction of an acid and a base to form a neutral solution of water and a salt
Equivalence point
the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts
Stoichiomoetry
The relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound
Mole ratio
In a balanced equation, the ratio between the numbers of moles of any two substances.
Limiting reactant
the reactant that limits the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction
Combustion
A rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that creates thermal energy
Exothermic
the system releases energy to its surroundings
Endothermic
the system absorbs energy from its surroundings
Energy
the ability to do work or cause change in matter
System
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
Surroundings
everything else in the universe beside the system
Heat
the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
Thermal equilibrium
The state of two or more objects or substances in thermal contact when they have reached a common temperature
Thermal energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance
Calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Specific heat capacity
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius