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68 terms

Doming - Final Review Terms

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Acids
substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
Alcohol
any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
Alkane
a non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2)
Alkene
consists of at least one carbon to carbon double bond
Allotropes
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state
Alloy
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
Anode
a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device
Atoms
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
Bases
substances that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
Brass
an alloy of copper and zinc
Carbohydrates
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
Carbon Chain
carbon atoms chemicaly linked together, forming a chainlike molecular structure
carboxylic
relating to or containing the carboxyl group or carboxyl radical
Cathode
a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device
Ceramics
objects made from clay or other combinations of minerals baked at high temperature
Chemical
produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
Coefficients
the numbers that appear before the formulas
Covalent Bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Created
built or made
Crude Oil
a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
Cycloalkanes
Saturated hydrocarbons with carbon atoms joined in a ring
Decrease
the act of decreasing or reducing something
destroyed
destroyed physically or morally
Distillate
a purified liquid produced by condensation from a vapor during distilling
Distillation
the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors
Doping
adding impurities to a semiconductor to increase conductivity
electron
an elementary particle with negative charge
electrons
negatively charged particles
electroplating
the deposition of a thin layer of metal on a surface by an electrical process involving oxidation-reduction reactions
endothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat
exothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat
fats
nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
fractional distillation
fractionation of a liquid by distillation
fractions
a number that expresses parts of a whole or a group
fullerene
a form of carbon having a large molecule consisting of an empty cage of sixty or more carbon atoms
H+ ions
Ions that change the structure of hemoglobin so that O2 can no longer bind to it
hydrocarbons
organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between molecules
kinetic
characterized by motion
macronutrients
A chemical substance that an organism must obtain in relatively large amounts
micronutrients
Nutrients required in small or trace amounts. Some examples are phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium.
mole
the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams
neutron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
nonrenewable
that can not be renewed
OH- ions
hydroxide ions
organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)
percent composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
petroleum
a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
photosynthesis
synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
pigment
dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)
plastics
synthetic polymers that can be molded or shaped
polymers
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
potential
the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
products
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
properties
characteristics used to describe a substance
proteins
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
proton
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
reactants
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
renewable
capable of being renewed
semiconductors
elements that conduct an electric current under certain conditions
separately
apart from others
shells
the orbits of electrons around the nucleus in certain energy levels
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
structural isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
superconductor
a material that has almost zero resistance when it is cooled to low temperatures
unsaturated
used of a compound (especially of carbon) containing atoms sharing more than one valence bond
valence electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
vaporize
lose or cause to lose liquid by vaporization leaving a more concentrated residue