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the lines of the poem are arranged in the shape of the subject of the poem. Example: "Moon" by Myra Cohn Livingston

free verse

poetry that doesn't follow a particular rhyming or rhythm pattern. Example: "The Launching" by Raymond Souster


Two successive lines of poetry that rhyme.
Example: "The Pest" by Dennis Lee


A stanza of four lines.
Example: "Ballad of Birmingham" by Dudley Randall


A poem written to tell a particular story.
Example: "Mr. Tanner" by Harry Chapin and "What Do I Remember of the Evacuation" by Joy Kogawa


A short poem expressing a personal feeling, emotion, or attitude about a particular topic.
Examples: "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost and "Long Way Home" by Pat Jasper

concrete image

Allow the reader to identify closely and directly with the voice of the poem, to experience it intensely, and convey the poet's central message or theme. These words emphasize the five senses - the physical details. The images created often rely on one or more of the literary devices of simile, metaphor, alliteration, etc.


When you take all the concrete images together and informs the reader about the central idea of the poem.

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Voice Recording