Scott Foresman Social Studies Chapter 9
5th Grade Social Studies - Unit 4, Chapter 9, Winning the Revolution
Terms in this set (70)
City where the Second Continental Congress met
Suggested George Washington to lead the new American army
Appointed Commander-in-Chief if the newly formed Continental Army in June 1775
President of the Congress, first signer of the Declaration of Independence
Author of Common Sense - easy to read pamphlet that urged separation from Great Britain and convinced many Americans it was time to declare independence
Richard Henry Lee
June 1776, asked Congress to vote for independence (actual vote was delayed until July)
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Second Continental Congress
Began meeting in Philadelphia in May 1775; they formed the Continental Army and approved the Declaration of Independence
An army with soldiers from all 13 colonies commanded by George Washington
Olive Branch Petition
Petition sent to King George III (July 1775) saying colonists were still loyal and war could be avoided if colonists were given greater freedom to govern themselves
Declaration of Independence
Document that explains why the colonies wanted independence; approved by Congress on July 4, 1776
According to the Declaration of Independence, what are three "unalienable" rights?
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
a person who works against his or her country
Captured by Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys on May 10, 1775; it was an important early victory for the Americans. And they captured needed British cannons.
Trenton, New Jersey
December 1776. Held by an army of german mercenaries known as Hessians. Washington crossed the Delaware river at night on Christmas Day and led a surprise attack on Trenton, NJ. This victory gave new hope to the Americans
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
Where Washington's army set up camp for the winter of 1777, after the British had captured Philadelphia. It was a difficult winter - over 2,500 men died of hunger, cold and disease.
Led the attack by the Green Mountain Boys that captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British on May 10, 1775
Young colonel sent by George Washington to bring the cannons 250 miles from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston where he had the British were surrounded.
A teacher who volunteered to go into the British camp and spy for the Americans. He was caught and hanged. He said, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
A British General who sailed south on Lake Champlain with an army of over 7,000 soldiers to try and capture Albany and then continue south splitting the colonies in half
A Polish engineer who designed a fort near Saratoga, where the Americans planned to stop the British advance.
An american general, who was a key leader at the Battle of Saratoga. He was wounded during the battle and never led troops again. In 1780 he joined the British army for money and one of America's most famous traitors.
An african american who stood his ground in the face of a charge by a British officer at Bunker Hill. he also helped fight the Battle of Saratoga
A slave who risked his life as a spy. He worked his way into British headquarters and gained the trust of the British generals. He was freed after the war.
A Boston minister who was a patriot of the Revolutionary war. He later led the struggle to end slavery in the United States.
One of the most active female patriots. She cooked and delivered food, visited the wounded, and would knit socks and mend clothing.
Mary Ludwig Hays
Nicknamed "Molly Pitcher," she risked her life carrying pitchers of water to the men on the battlefield When her husband collapsed from the heat at the Battle of Monmouth she took his place and helped fire the cannons.
In 1782 she dressed as a man an entered the army as Robert Shurtleff. She fought in several battles and was wounded twice before her secret was discovered.
First African American woman to have a book of poetry published. She who wrote poems supporting the Revolution and opposing slavery.
Green Mountain Boys
A group of Vermont soldiers led by Ethan Allen
soliders from one country who are paid to fight for another country
Battle of Saratoga
October 1777. Often called the "turning point" of the American Revolution. Burgoyne surrendered his entire army to the Americans. This victory convinced French leaders to help the Americans.
How did the capture of Fort Ticonderoga lead to the American victory in Boston?
When the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga, they also captured cannons. George Washington had these cannons brought to Boston by Henry Knox. When the British saw the canons on the hills surrounding the city they left Boston.
Why did Congress send King George II the Olive Branch Petition?
They were trying to avoid war.
What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?
The purpose was to explain why the colonies wanted independence and give Congress the chance to make sure that all 13 colonies supported the break with Britain.
Why was Washington's victory at Trenton important for the Americans?
The Americans had suffered a number of defeats in New York City. The were cold and hungry due to a shortage of food. The victory at Trenton gave them new hope.
Why did the British want to control Lake Champlain and the Hudson River?
If the British could control Lake Champlain and the Hudson River they would have divided the Colonies in half. The British general John Burgoyne though this would end the Revolution.
In what ways did women contribute to the war effort?
Women contributed in many ways, including cooking, delivering food, mending clothes, knitting socks, caring for the wounded, helping take water to the men, writing letters supporting independence and even fighting in the war (disguised as a man).
What are the 4 major events in Lesson 2 - Patriots at War?
(1) Victory at Fort Ticondergoga (2) Victory at Boston, (3) Victory at Trenton (4) Victory at Saratoga
How was Washington able to force the British to leave Boston?
He had Henry Knox bring the canons, captured by Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys at Fort Ticonderoga, 250 miles and placed them on the hills surrounding Boston.
What is one important effect of the Battle of Saratoga?
Defeating General Burgoyne's entire British army at Saratoga convinced the French that the Americans could win the war so they agreed to provide assistance
Captured by the British in December 1778.
Fort controlled by the British. Captured in a surprise attack by Clark and his 170 man army in February 1779. this victory strengthened the American control of the Ohio River valley.
The British set up camp in Yorktown in 1781. Washington's army trapped them there and won the last major battle of the Revolutionary War forcing Cornwallis to surrender his army in October 1781.
Friedrich von Steuben
A German officer who helped train american soldiers and make them into a professional army
Marquis de Lafayette
A young soldier from France who joined Washington's staff at Valley Forge.
Bernardo de Galvez
Governor of Spanish Louisiana, he led troops against the British capturing key forts along the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico and severely weakening British power.
Militia leader from South Carolina who led daring raids with groups as small as 20 men. He would lead a surprise attack and then disappear into the swamps earning him the nickname, "Swamp Fox."
George Rogers Clark
Led a surprise attack on Fort Vincennes can captured it strengthening the American control of the Ohio River valley.
John Paul Jones
One of the first men in the Continental Navy. In 1779 he captained the ship, Bonhomme Richard that battled tge British ship Seraphis. Blasted full of holes and leaking badly he shouted "I have not yet begun to fight." They won the battle.
Commanded the patriot forces in the South in 1780. He used the open spaces of the South to force the British to chase him back and forth across the Carolinas.
A British general who fought Nathanael Greene in the Carolinas until he tired of chasing them and set up camp in Yorktown. Washington trapped him there and after a battle forced his surrender on October 19, 1781
Treaty of Paris
The American Revolution was officially ended by this treaty signed in 1783. The treaty recognized the United States of America as an independent nation.
What was one effect of Spain's entry into the war against Britain?
The spanish troops took many British forts along the Mississippi river and the Gulf of Mexico weakening the British's power
Why was the victory of the Bonhomme Richard so important?
It was one of the first victories for the American navy.
Why did Washington decide to go to Virginia instead of attacking the British in New York City?
He saw that the British could be trapped at Yorktown by bringing Washington's army south to join Nathanael Greene's forces and block them by land and having the French Navy sail into the Chesapeake Bay and block them by sea.
Summarize the effects of the Treaty of Paris.
The Treaty of Paris made the United States an independent nation. It officially ended the Revolutionary War.
France joined the war agains Britain.
Americans defeat the British at Yorktown, last major battle of the Revolutionary War.
Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War.
Washington captured Trenton, NJ from the German Hessians.
American victory at Saratoga, NY was a turning point of the war.
Short of supplies the Continental Army suffered through winter at Valley Forge, PA.
George Washington took command of the Continental Army.
Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense, urged separation from Britain.
July 4, 1776
The Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence.
List 3 factors that helped the United States win the American Revolution.
(1) Help from other countries (2) Southern patriots rose up and drove the British out of the South (3) Victory at Yorktown
Did other nations help the United States win the American Revolution?
Yes. The French joined the war in 1778 and were key in the victory at Yorktown using their navy to block the British from the sea. The Spanish fought the British along the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico weakening their power.
What achievements made John Paul Jones a famous patriot?
He battled the British on the ocean, refusing to surrender and capturing the British ship, Serapis - one of the first naval victories for the American Navy.
Explain Washington's strategy for trapping the British at Yorktown.
Washington joined his army with Greene's forces trapping the British by land and had the French Navy sail into the Chesapeake Bay and trap them by sea.
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