Upgrade to remove ads
Mini Exam 2 EARTH
Terms in this set (89)
when two streams come together it's called this
The smaller of the two streams in a confluence
the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid; dry ice does this
The point at which a stream comes into a large body of water, like an ocean or a lake
Where the stream meets the ocean or lake
a topographically high area that separates a landscape into different water basins; like great divide; Rain that falls on the north side of a ridge flows into the northern drainage basin and rain that falls on the south side flows into the southern drainage basin.
largest reservoir of liquid fresh water on Earth and is found in aquifers
porous rock and sediment with water in between. conducts groundwater in usable amounts. tapped by farmers. also source of water for towns/municipalities. sometimes water doesn't reach aquifers due to seepage (flows to groundwater). can be mined (taken and not put back).
The amount of time a molecule stays in a reservoir is known as its
The amount of water that is available to enter groundwater in a region is influenced by these factors
the local climate, the slope of the land, the type of rock found at the surface, the vegetation cover, land use in the area, and water retention, which is the amount of water that remains in the ground.
To be a good aquifer, it must have good:
porosity: small spaces between grains
permeability: connections between pores
natural recharge by precipitation
study of groundwater is called
this aquifer supplies about one-third of the irrigation water in the United States. At current rates of use, 70 percent of the aquifer could be gone by 2050
The Ogallala Aquifer; Ogallala aquifer case study -- where is it, what is it, what is happening to it? Ogallala aquifer case study -- where is it, what is it, what is happening to it?
where Groundwater meets the surface
a stream or a spring. A spring may be constant, or may only flow at certain times of year.
Percentage of planet made up of ocean; this represents what percent of water on earth?
The oceans make up 70 percent of the planet and contains 97 percent of all the water on Earth. fresh >3%. of surface fresh water 99.35% is in glaciers/ice. though minor part of earth, ice caps/glaciers equally important though only 10% ice. [? investigate]
How is energy transferred between the equator and the two poles
larger surface currents by winds and deep ocean currents driven by differences in ocean density.
provide the foundation of the global food web of species; what percent of world's population live near coastal areas?
Phytoplankton, microscopic plants and animals in; the oceans he earth's oceans are so vital for life that over 40 percent of population live near coast
extremes of earths temperature as low as and as high as (celsius)
Some places on Earth reach as cold as -7 degrees Celsius, whereas other places reach as hot as 55 degrees Celsius.
Major ways that heat is distributed around the planet.
The oceans, along with the atmosphere; The oceans absorb heat near the equator and then transport that solar energy to polar regions. The oceans also moderate climate within a region.
Since they cover so much of the planet, most evaporation comes from this body and most precipitation falls here...
makes up the majority of all biomass on Earth. (Biomass is the total mass of living organisms in a given area.)
Earth's tallest mountain, which rises 10,203 m (33,476 ft.) from the Pacific Ocean floor to become one of the volcanic mountains of Hawaii.
Mauna Kea volcano
The deepest canyon is also on the ocean floor, 10,916 m (35,814 ft).
the Challenger Deep in the Marianas Trench
The mapping of the ocean floor and coastal margins is called
the transition from the land to the deep sea or, geologically speaking, from continental crust to oceanic crust. More than one-quarter of the ocean basin is this..
The continental margin
This is the flip side of weathering, As water moves through rock and soil on land it picks up what? What percent of the mass of ocean water is salt? Is the salinity the same in all locations?
ions. Salts comprise about 3.5 percent of the mass of ocean water, but the salt content or salinity is different in different locations.
Places where seawater mixes with fresh water is called? What effect does this have on salinity? What happens to the salinity when there is a lot of evaporation but little circulation of water?
In places like estuaries, seawater mixes with fresh water, causing salinity to be much lower than average. Where there is lots of evaporation but little circulation of water, salinity can be much higher.
This sea has 30 percent salinity-nearly nine times the average salinity of ocean water.
The Dead Sea
What is responsible for deep ocean currents? This is impacted when salinity increases; temperature decreases; pressure increases.
Differences in water density
three major factors that make the deep ocean hard to inhabit:
the absence of light, low temperature, and extremely high pressure.
To better understand regions of the ocean, scientists define the water column by its what? How do they divide the entire ocean? divided based on?
depth. They into two zones vertically, based on light level.
Sunlight only penetrates the sea surface to a depth of about 200 m, creating this zone? Why do most other marine organisms live in or visit this zone? What are the sub zones? Some organisms are restricted to this zone, why is that?
the photic zone (consisting of the Sunlight Zone and Twilight Zone). Organisms that photosynthesize depend on sunlight for food and so are restricted to the photic zone. Since tiny photosynthetic organisms, known as phytoplankton, supply nearly all of the energy and nutrients to the rest of the marine food web, most other marine organisms live in or at least visit the photic zone.
In this zone [NAME] which makes up the majority of the ocean, there is a relatively small amount of life both in diversity of type and in numbers, why? What are the subzones?
In the aphotic zone (consisting of the Midnight Zone and the Abyss) there is not enough light for photosynthesis. The aphotic zone makes up the majority of the ocean, but has a relatively small amount of its life, both in diversity of type and in numbers.
This zone [name] lies nearest to the shore, it is the region between the high and low tidal marks. the hallmark of this zone is change, where water is in constant motion from three forces [name]. Here, The land is sometimes under water and sometimes is exposed.
Nearest to the shore lies the intertidal zone, the region between the high and low tidal marks. This hallmark of the intertidal is change, where water is in constant motions from ocean waves, tides, and currents.
This zone occurs from the low tide mark and slopes gradually downward to the edge of the seaward side of the continental shelf. Some sunlight penetrates to the seabed here.
The neritic zone
This zone comprises the entire rest of the ocean from the bottom edge of the neritic zone, where sunlight does not reach the bottom.
The oceanic zone
Surface ocean currents creat loops called what? Which current is unique because it travels uninhibited around the globe?
the major surface ocean currents that the surface ocean currents create loops called gyres. centered around 20-30 degrees. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is unique because it travels uninhibited around the globe.
What is mycelium, and why is it important? [DIRT]
mycelium are the long roots that come from the fungus that is responsible for the decomposition of dead material. they are the "interface organisms between life and death" it creates the soil after breakdown. all soils have mycelium (mats).
- What happens to excess nitrogen fertilizer that is applied to crops? [DIRT]
Some excess nitrogen ends up in the GOM and feeding the algae, it also ends up as nitrous oxide which contributes to greenhouse gases.
- What services to trees provide for society -- what functions (besides timber and paper) for humans do they provide? [DIRT]
trees: protects topsoil (prevents erosion), absorbs pollutants, create oxygen, storm water filtration, CO2 filtration and storage
- Will crops or native plants be more resilient to climate change? Why? [DIRT]
Native plants? Deeper Roots?
Ocean water moves in predictable ways along the ocean surface, how far can they flow? How deep can they be?
Surface currents can flow for thousands of kilometers and can reach depths of hundreds of meters.
Do surface currents depend on weather?
No, ; they remain unchanged even in large storms because they depend on factors that do not change.
Surface currents are created by three things:
global wind patterns, the rotation of the Earth, and the shape of the ocean basins.
Why are Surface currents are extremely important?
because they distribute heat around the planet and are a major factor influencing climate around the globe.
Global winds blow in the same directions all the time and are related to (two things)
the unequal heating of Earth by the Sun, that is that more solar radiation strikes the equator than the polar regions, and the rotation of the Earth called the Coriolis effect.
Ocean currents -- what is their importance in terms of transporting heat? factors that drive ocean currents (and the main one); know ocean currents that we talked about in class -- where are they and are they warm/cold, such as Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Drift; Pacific, Kuroshio, Peru, Benguele, etc.); what is importance of ocean currents to climates, such as western Europe; Deepwater currents -- how does it differ from ocean currents, describe the main one we talked about
ocean currents effected by these factors: surface friction (dragging ocean-wind); corals effect (because of spin/apparent deflection), density differences (e.g. deep water current different due to salinity variations). minor impact are tides and configuration of the coastlines. westerlies cause current down pushing water from caribbean to europe of gulf stream. N. Atlantic drift - mid atlantic. on EAST side of continents generally warmer currents, most COLD currents on West coat. Major: Pacific Current on W. Coast of N. America helps make CA a beautiful place, good climate, keeps atmosphere stable. Keeps whole W. coast "Mild" also keeps LA/S.Diego from getting too hot. Kuroshio: east of japan, Peru off S.America, Benguele off SW africa, Cara current off NW africa, cold current off of W coast of austraila
How does the coriolis effect surface currents in the N. Hemisphere? S. Hemisphere?
The Coriolis effect bends the direction of surface currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. Because of Coriolis effect, the water goes right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere.
This effect describes how Earth's rotation steers winds and surface ocean currents
The Coriolis effect
causes freely moving objects to appear to move to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere; The objects themselves are actually moving straight, but the Earth is rotating beneath them, so they seem to bend or curve.
The Coriolis effect .
As wind or an ocean current moves, the Earth spins underneath it. As a result, an object moving north or south along the Earth will appear to move in a curve, instead of in a straight line. Wind or water that travels toward the poles from the equator is deflected to the east, while wind or water that travels toward the equator from the poles gets bent to the west.
Water in the surface currents is pushed in the direction of what? Name two primary ones discussed and where they are located.
the major wind belts:
trade winds: east to west between the equator and 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South
westerlies: west to east in the middle latitudes
polar easterlies: east to west between 50 degrees and 60 degrees north and south of the equator and the north and south pole
hydrologic cycle -- what is it, where does water that eventually precipitates over land come from, is there an overall balance or are we losing water in some part of the cycle
simplified model of flow of water. describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. most precipitation comes from ocean. residence time refers to duration of "stay" in various form. eg. atmosphere 10 days, deep oceans, glaciers, deep aquifers: 3-10, yrs.
sub component of hydrosphere, frozen water part, ice, glaciers, snow pack, permafrost, 10% of land area of earth covered in ice, greenland 2 miles thick. antarctic: 2.5-3 miles thick, alpine glacier: 10-100 meters
La Nina -- what is it and what did we say about it?
opposite of el nino, MORE.
El Nino/ENSO; what is it; where does it occur; how often does it occur and last; be able to describe the process; what are its effects and consequences; ENSO and global change
El Nino is the warming of the pacific ocean between s. america and int'l date line (peru/ecquador) to S. Pacific - esp off the coast of NW South America
- up to 8degree difference.
- The trade winds slack off, pool of warm ocean water stretch east ward to s. america. normally there is Low over austrailia keeping w. coast of s. america cold but not so in El NiŃo (opposite).
- S.Ocillation is how this affects atmospheric pressure/winds every 3-7 years. lasts about 1-2 years.
- upwelling (bringing of nutrients to surface) decreases. ocean current can reverse, relatively cooler water and high pressure in W. Pacific.
- Dry where it is usually rainy. friction pushes water surface then deeper colder water to the surface.
Concepts: Water in general -- why important to society; Distribution of water -- how much of earth is covered/how much is freshwater/how much freshwater is non-glacier or ice; how much of land surface is covered by ice
main uses of water;
unique in that on earth it exists as liquid, gas, solid. it is good solvent-dissolves a lot of things. Has a high specific heat so is able to store alot of heat.
process of the hydrologic cycle in which plants release moisture back into the air.
either in water in which nutrients rise to top of water OR in movement of plates in which mantle material makes new sea floor. WHICH?
percolation (from a video from your readings)
water moves downward through openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground.
in reference to el nino, impacts on whether parters/events/systems far from location of weather pattern talking about.
encompasses continental drift, associated with earths rigid outer shell called lithosphere. several plates, plates move slowly, largest pacific plate, ocean/content can be on same plate
the more brittle, weaker, hotter segment of the earth's crust under the lithosphere. allows for motion of the lithosphere.
seafloor spreading zone
along ridges create new sea floor-constructive margins/ divergent
the region where an oceanic plate sinks down into the asthenosphere at a convergent boundary (usually between continental and oceanic plates)
deep sea trenches;
"destructive margins" convergent plate boundaries, plates collide, ocean trench forms lithosphere. subjected into mantle, denser slab sinks into asthenosphere.
hotspot - plate techtonics
shows that magma escapes though crust, as crust moves. emperor sea mt chain.
ring of fire;
around the edges of the pacific plate/ocean. volcanoes/earthquakes [converge/diverge?].
when contents assume into super continents, break apart, move, drift, disperse, and reassemble.
Concepts: Why is it important to know about plate tectonics (4 reasons discussed in class);
helps understand earthquakes, volcanism, recluse elements in biosphere (carbon, nitrogen, calcium), causes mtn building.
structure of earth and its characteristics;
continental drift vs plate tectonics -- same thing, or not?;
in plate techtonics mechanisms known.
know and be able to describe the 5 main lines of evidence discussed in class supporting plate tectonics theory;
1 - mapping of seafloor
2 - ocean drilling
3 - paleomagnetism - reversal of Earth's magnetic field shown in ancient rocks
4 - measurement of movements - tracking hotspots & using technology to measure plate movement
5 - shape & fit of continents, similar environments across continents
Alfred Wegener -- who was he, what did he propose, and was his hypothesis accepted at the time he presented it (why or why not?);
german? had hypothesis of continental drift. super continent pangaea, break apart "drifted" to present positions, continents "broke through ocean crust. rejected because mechanism could not be identified.
Types of plate boundary collisions - divergant, convergant, transform,
in general, what causes earthquakes and what causes volcanism?;
plates, interaction [MORE here].
What is the driving force for plate tectonics (in other words, what causes the plates to move?)
unconsolidated mineral/organic material on immediate surface of earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic/environmental factors or: climate, macro/micro orgs, relief, parent material, time.
distribution of particle sizes
horizontal divisions of soils
Most soils have a distinct profile or sequence of horizontal layers. Generally, these horizons result from the processes of chemical weathering, eluviation, illuviation, and organic decomposition.
dark, organic material formed as plant/animal matter decays.
Humus is the biochemical substance that makes the upper layers of the soil become dark. It is colored dark brown to black. Humus is difficult to see in isolation because it binds with larger mineral and organic particles. Humus provides soil with a number of very important benefits:
It enhances a soil's ability to hold and store moisture.
It reduces the eluviation of soluble nutrients from the soil profile.
It improves soil structure which is necessary for plant growth.
Concepts -- 5 soil-forming factors;
climate, parent material, time, topography, plants, animals
what are the 4 main things that comprise soil?
Air, water, mineral/organic material
Soil horizons (O, A, B, C) -- what are they and what are their main characteristics?;
OABCR- O: top most decomposing plant litter, humus A: primarily of mineral particles where they mix most B horizon: is a mineral soil layer higher density than A C: particles ranging in size from clay to boulders, weathered parent material R: unweathered bedrock
What are some of the causes of soil erosion;
• Row Cropping
• Tilling or Plowing
• Crop Removal
what kinds of "services" (or beneficial things) does soil provide to humans?;
mineral resources, agriculture, filters ground water, supports our buildings/roads, requesters carbon.
what does soil texture mean
distribution of particle sizes.
-- what are the three sizes of soil particles that soil texture describes?
sand silt clay, .05, .002, <.002
how energy travels from the point of an earthquake,
called seismic waves.
refers to the movement of fine mineral particles (like clay) or dissolved substances out of an upper layer in a soil profile. The deposition of fine mineral particles or dissolved substances in a lower soil layer is called illuviation.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 11.2- Ocean Currents Quizlet Stu…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
NBCOT TherapyEd Ch. 13: Cognitive Perceptual Appro…
NBCOT - Practice Exams
AOTA PDF: Cardiopulmonary Conditions