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225 terms

World Civ 9H Some Test Multiple Choice Questions

who dominated the economic and political life of medieval towns?
merchant guilds
how did new ways of doing business reshape medieval society?
the system of feudalism broke down and a middle class emerged
why did some religious people want to reform the church during medieval times?
its very success had brought problems
what describes a nature of a guild
an association of people who worked in the same occupation
increased food population during the high middle ages caused .....
the population of europe to double
who assumed the role of king with anglo-saxon kind edward died in 1066
edward's brother-in-law Harold
how did the battle of hastings change the course of english history?
the Normans took control of england
during the high middle ages, what was one way the english monarchs strengthened the governement
they organized a government bureaucracy
for what purpose did english kings use the domesday book
to build an efficient system of tax collection
what did the decisions of the english royal courts of justice create?
common law
in 1215, english nobles forced king john to sign the magna carta, a document that
stated that the king must obey the law
which of the following created a need for education in europe during the high middle ages?
rulers needed government officials who could read and write
which most accurately describes women's role in medieval society?
women were not allowed to attend the universities
how did medieval cathedrals help to educate an illiterate public?
the featured sculptures and stained glass that portrayed biblical stories
canon law applied to
religious teachings
the stories of medieval writes such as dante and chaucer were important because....
they gave insight into medieval life and showed the impotence of the church
some people reacted to the plague by
turning to magic and witchcraft
which of the following was a cause of the crusades?
people wanted to free the holy land from turkish control
which of the following was a result of the crusades?
trade between europe and the east increased
what did the devastation caused by the bubonic plague contribute to?
the disruption and collapse of medieval society
which of the following was the central issue of the Hundred years' war?
the throne of france
what was the most important effect of the Hundred Years' war?
it caused the development of national identities in england and france.
sacred rituals of the catholic church are called _________ and they are essential for salvation
holy war
a tax the church required christians to pay
peasant women who led french troops to victory in the hundred years' war
joan of arc
example of medieval literature
a divine comedy by dante
allowed cathedrals to have higher building walls, leaving space for stained-glass windows
flying buttresses
during the hundred years' war, the english had the advantage of the _____ and in response the french developed the ____
longbow and cannon
christian scholar who used reason to examine Christian teaching
thomas aquinas
a method of study that uses reason to support christian beliefs
at the council of clermont, ___ gave a speech that begin the crusades
urban II
everyday language of ordinary people is called the
worldly or nonreligious
church action that excommunicated an entire town or region
this didn't' result from the repeated invasions of the germanic tribes that led to the fall of the roman empire...
the establishment of a common language
to ensure a supply of educated officials, charlemagne
set up a palace school
the vikings were fierce warriors, as well as
traders and explorers
feudalism evolved in response to a need for
what were the forces holding feudal society together?
a set of mutual social obligations and the teachings of the church
in exchange for land, __________ pledged service to a greater lord
a lord granted a vassal his ___, or estate
________could no lead the manor without permission
a ______included one or more villages and the surrounding lands
____is the king of the franks who conquered gaul in 486 and converted to christianity
_____ were the officials sent by Charlemagne to manage his empire
missi dominici
"from aachen I shale rule my empire."
"my first loyalty is to my liege lord."
a vassal
"let me sing you a song, my lady, praising your virtues."
"my master is teaching me the art of sword making."
"it is my duty to be brave, loyal, and true."
the code of laws hat were collected by the great byzantine emperor that had an impact on western law codes was called the
justinian codes
great church that was a landmark of the byzantine capital city
hagia sophia
in the byzantine empire, the emperor was an __________ that is he was a sole ruler with complete authority
the highest church official in the byzantine empire was called a
in the eastern orthodox religion, _____ or holy images of jesus, mary, or church saints, were used by people in their prayers
the roman empire ended in the year
476 A.D.
the byzantine empire ended in the year
1453 A.D.
unlike roman catholics, byzantine clergy..
could marry
to muslims, the quran is
the final authority on all matters
muslim trade was
the law code drawn up by islamic scholars was known as the
many conquered peoples converted to islam because
it emphasized the equality of all believers
the majority branch within islam has been the
after muhammed moved to yathrib, it was named
islam considers muhammed to be a
a _____ is a muslim house of worship
the supreme god of islam is called
the slender towers from which the muezzin calls the faithful to the prayer are known as
islam means
shiites believe that the caliph should be an
ancestor of muhammed
pillar of faith 1
profession of creed (shahada) god, muhammed is messenger of god
pillar of faith 2
prayer (salat) muslims pray towards mecca 5X per day
pillar of faith 3
giving to the poor (zakat)
pillar of faith 4
fasting (siyam) fast from dawn to dusk during ramadan
pillar of faith 5
pilgrimage (hajj) journey to mecca once in your lifetime
the best expression of islamic art is found in its
arab philosophers tried to harmonize greek ideas about reason with
_____ is an intricate design of curved lines that suggests floral shapes
muslims made many contributions in medicine except
they didn't study smallpox. cataracts, and performed some organ transplants
one thousand and one nights was written during the golden age given us
ali baba and the forty thieves, and also aladdin and his magic lamp
suleiman was called the
when the ottomans conquered people they
treated the people kindly
majority of muslims (85-90%)
tend to be more powerful politically
respected for their piety and miraculous powers
tend to be poorer
extreme minority of muslims; they fast and meditate
believed the caliph should be an elected pious leader
believed the caliph should be a descendant of muhammad
this group makes up the minority of muslims (10-15%)
population mostly in iraq is mostly from this branch of islam..
how were the byzantines heirs to the roman empire?
Justinian was determined to relive the grandeur of ancient Rome.
He launched a program to beautify constantinople.(hagia sophia)
He set up a comission to collect, revise, and organize laws of ancient rome.
^^^This resulted in Justinian's Code~included laws passed by roman assemblies, or decreed by roman emperors
major books of islam
Quran (means recitation)

Sharia-law code that interprets Quran (final matters on all subjects)
spiritual leaders of islam
Allah, Muhammed, jesus, iman (priest)
How did Islam differ from previous religious beliefs?
MONOTHEISTIC!!!!!! They saw Jesus as a prophet, and prophets spread the word of ALLAH.
Muhammed was the last prophet...all Muslims are required to pilgram to Mecca.
How did the world begin? (islam)
"night a mantle.." "ordained the world for work.." "built 7 might heavens..." "sent down abundant water from the clouds, bringing grain, plants, and gardens
View of god (Islam)
wise and all knowing
he forgives sins
compassionate and merciful
the king of judgement day
guides you to the right path
view of humankind? (islam)
allah may forgive your past...AND YOUR FUTURE SINS
he will prefect his goodness to you (allah)
the human are INNOCENT, and will stay that way if you FOLLOW THE RIGHT PATH
Salvation? (islam)
journey to mecca once during your life
loyalty to allah
following the 5 pillars (Shahada, salat, zakat, siyam, hajj)
judgement day?
heaven and hell..on judgement day, you'll journey to one of those places
SPREAD ISLAM...normadic herders
muhammed was born here
muslims pray towards it (5X per day)
wife of Muhammed
journey spanning from mecca to yathrib
city of the prophet
effort, or struggle in god's service

regulates life
(applies to daily life)
achievements of muslim world
muslim scholars translated the works of the greek philosophers

treated cataracts

required doctors to take an exam before practicing medicine

muslim civilization absorbed and blended many cultures/traditions
ottoman empire significant?
Osman built the small state...his successors expanded it by buying land, and conquering everyone they could

used gunpowder...also replaced archers on horseback with musket-carrying soldiers

suleiman united the ottoman empire...suleiman the magnificent was a tribute to "the splendor of his court" and his cultural achievemnts
origins of the modern middle east?
traced back to WW1 decisions by the victorious allies, who split up the ottoman empire

britain and france paid little attention to tribal or ethnic or religious differences that stand today!!
what are the main issues in the arab-israeli conflict?
the british mandated palestine in present-day israel, ordain, west bank, and the gaza strip

west of the jordan river, the issue of jewish homeland played out over the next 2 leaders opposed the creation of a new jewish state in palestine, where the population WAS ARAB

factors that have led to uprisings in the middle east...
egypt and tunisia started the arab spring...other countries followed patients are whipped so government officials get info from them

iran...iran HATES israel...we have ties with israel..which is why iran hates us..NUCLEAR CAPABILITY

Afghanistan..major drug exporting company..opium (heroine) ...POVERTY 36% UNDER LINE....TALIBAN AND AL QUEADA

israel and palestine fight to see who gets what land..REFUGEE PROBLEM
issues of concern for muslim women...
they were the hijab..seen as oppressive and as a symbol of a Muslim woman's subservience to men

women are not equal to men in terms of inheritance

women are not qualified to be qadis..if so (not over criminal/divorce issues..which is a qadi's workload)
certain ME countries are concern to the states...

we have ties with israel..we watch and protect them...IRAN HATES that gives reason for iran to hate us

IRAQ..full blown civil war could erupt between the sunnis and the shiites..and we could become caught in the middle of it
how did foreign invasions lead to feudalism?
emperors were to weak to maintain law and order.....people needed to protect themselves and their homes, and their response for PROTECTION..FEUDALISM CAME ABOUT...WHERE POWERFUL LORDS DIVIDED THEIR LANDHOLDINGS TO LESSER LORDS!
how did feudal obligations organize the social structure in medieval society?
lords + vassals..established by custom and tradition and by an exchange of pledges (feudal contract)..granted fiefs

the fiefs included peasants to work the land

as part of the feudal contract...THE LORD PROMISED TO PROTECT HIS return, the vassal pledged loyalty to the lord ...40 days of MILITARY SERVICE EACH YEAR... AND ...ALSO ADVICE

kings + lords...lords gave loyalty and food to the kings...and kings provided them w/ a large fief

vassals and knights.....knights provided vassals with protection and return vassals provided training, weapons, and gear

pesants and knights....peasants supplied food and maintenance, and knights defended them
in what ways did the church dominate life in the middle ages?
church goers were dedicated to the worship of God..they believed all people who were sinners would suffer eternally..the only way to avoid hell would be to believed in Christ and partake in the sacraments....AND SINCE THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH ADMINISTERED SACRAMENTS..IT HAD ABSOLUTE POWER ON ALL RELIGIOUS MATTERS


what was daily life like in the middle ages?
peasants..HARSH LIFE...simple diet of black bread w/ veggies....never ate meat..unless hunted it on their manor (they could be punished)..worked according to the season..and took holidays off

KNIGHTS..7 years old, send away to a local lord's difficult and strict..LAZINESS was punished with blows or beatings


LORDS..rival lords constantly battled for power..
.protected his vassal....managed his fiefs..
technological advancements drove economic, military, and political change in the middle ages how..?
peasants adapted new farming technologies that made their fields more productive.. (iron plows--> dug deep into heavy soil) (horses instead of oxen..faster mode, which increased field size and planted more crops..) (windmill...grind peasant's grain into flour)

3 field field grain, one field legumes, and third fallow (empty)...the new method left only 1/3 of the land unplanted

how did the plague affect all aspects of medieval society?
brought terror...some people turned to magic and witchcraft...

committed they knew they would die soon anyway

saw the plague as god's punishment ..christians blamed jews for the plague.

worker and employers died, production declined ..SURVIVORS DEMANDED HIGHER WAGES

church was unable to provide leadership..reformers elected their own pope

bitter revolts, in england, germany, and france..FEAR OF THE PLAGUE
the franks
germanic tribes who carved western europe into a small kingdom..conquered gaul...ELECTED KINGS TO LEAD THEM INTO WAR
feudal contract
relationship between lords and vassals..established by tradition, custom, and pledges
lesser kid..pledged service to the greater lord
stained glass
created a play of light
used color light
depicted biblical or religious scenes
jury system
Henry to speak the truth..composed of 12 peeps
Iran - Iran and Iraq hate each other because Iraq-Iran war, started
with Saddam Hussein and Islam-Iranian revolution, Ahmadinejad is
leader, doesn't believe in the holocaust, wants to blow Israel off the
map, threats of nuclear weapons which is being closely watched by
US, religious government, mostly Shiites about 90% to 95%,
Francis of assisi set up orders of friars, who were monks who did not live in isolated monasteries but traveled around europe's growing towns PREACHING TO THE POOR
Francis of assisi
set up orders of friars...preached gospel and taught by example....
the selling of church offices
papal supremacy
authority over all secular leaders (POPES CLAIMED PAPAL SUPREMACY)
Benedictine rule
monk who organized the monastery of monte cassino in southern italy..DREW UP A SET OF RULES!!
poem takes reader on journey into hell and
purgatory, describes vision of heaven, summarizes Christian ethics,
highlights key idea in Christianity that people's action in life will
determine fate in afterlife
BY CHAUCER... band of English pilgrims traveling
to a tomb, uses word portraits to sketch range of characters, each
character tells a story, funny, romantic, etc. each adds to picture of
medieval life
MEDIEVAL architecture
Architecture—Cathedrals (Flying Buttresses, Vaulted Arches) -
reflected Roman influences, looked like fortresses, thick walls and
towers, roof was a barrel vault or long tunnel of stone covering main
part of structure, interior was dark and gloomy due to no windows,
in 1140, new type of architecture developed, Gothic style, key

feature was flying buttresses which were stone supports that stood
outside the church, allowed builders to construct higher walls, leave
space for stained-glass windows
how did mongols conquer and rule a huge empire?
Genghis Khan built huge empire, united warring tribes, imposed strict
military discipline, demanded absolute loyalty, had most skilled horsemen
in the world, conquered Asian steppe lands with ease, turned on China
faced with problem of walled cities, used cannons and other new weapons
to conquer parts of China, heirs continued to expand Mongol empire,
dominated much of Asia, not oppressive rulers, allowed conquered
people to live as they had before with payment to the Mongols, sons and
grandsons of Genghis Khan established peace and order within domains,
period of Mongol Peace, ECONOMIC GROWTH BY CONTROLLING SILK ROAD!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
how did the ming rule after the collapse of the mongol dynasty? (yuan dynasty)
Rulers sought to reassert Chinese greatness after years of foreign rule,
restored civil service system, Confucian learning, very productive, plains of
eastern China supported population of more than 100 million, produced
huge rice crops, better methods of fertilizing improved farming, made
trade easier, new technologies, revival of art and literature, own styles of
landscape painting, new forms of literature started emerging
Rival clans battled for control of countryside, everyone formed bands loyal
to them rather than to the central government, Japan evolved a feudal
system out of this non-loyalty to the central government
mongol empire
empire built first by Genghis Khan and then by his
sons and grandsons, conquered most of Asia including walled cities
of China, very successful empire, period of Mongol Peace, economic
growth because of control of silk road
Genghis khan
born as Temujin, later united warring Mongol
tribes into one vast empire and was renamed Genghis Khan which
mongol peace
between 1200's and 1300's, peace and order within
domains established, political stability, economic growth, control of
silk road led to flourishing trade
kublai khan
tried to prevent Mongols from being absorbed into
Chinese civilization, said only Mongols could serve in the military,
reserved highest government jobs for Mongols, uneasy mix of
Chinese and foreign ways developed, capable, but demanding
emperor, rebuilt and extended Grand Canal
ming dynasty
Mongol dynasty declined after Kublai Khan, Ming
rulers sought to reassert Chinese greatness, economic revival,
immensely productive, supported large population, revival of arts
and literature, own styles of landscape painting, vases among most
valuable and popular Chinese products exported to west
zheng he
commanded first of seven expeditions, departed at head
of massive fleet, goal of each expedition to promote trade and collect
tribute from lesser powers, showed local rulers power and strength
of Middle Kingdom, many acknowledged supremacy of Chinese
JAPAN influence of geography
located on an archipelago, chain of islands,
off Asian mainland, four fifths of land too mountainous to farm,
many people settled in narrow river valleys, along coastal plains, mild
climate, sufficient rainfall, mountainous terrain obstacle to unity,
offered plentiful food resources, developed fishing industry, lies in
the Ring of Fire, subject to frequent earthquakes and volcanoes, also
tsunamis, came to fear and respect forces of nature
Japanese feudalism
Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai - shogun is supreme
military commander, had more power than emperor, often only
controlled small part of Japan, distributed lands to vassal lords,

agreed to support him with armies, great warrior lords later called
daimyo, they granted land to lesser warriors called samurai, samurai
followed bushido, samurai code, emphasized honor, bravery, and
absolute loyalty to one's lord
selective borrowing
Japanese kept some Chinese ways, discarded
others or modified others, process known as selective borrowing
zen gardens/zen Buddhism
Buddhist sect from China widespread
acceptance among samurai, called Zen, emphasized meditation and
devotion to duty, great scholars, valued uncluttered mind, stressed
compassion for all, samurai fought to kill, beliefs shaped Japanese
culture in many ways, upper-class men learned devotion to nature in
the renaissance, which lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s, was a period of
creativity and change in europe
this contributed to the birth of the renaissance in italy
a wealthy and powerful merchant class
which best explains why the renaissance occurred in northern europe layer than it did in italy?
the black death delayed economic growth in northern europe
which was NOT an effect of the printing press?
fewer people had access to books and knowledge
what was the first full-sized book gutenberg printed?
the bible
the study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on what subjects?
human potential and achievements
in their effort to achieve realism, renaissance painters and sculptors gave great attention to
why kind of person represented the ideal of the "renaissance man?"
someone who excelled in many areas of study
what factor, besides the plague, delayed the renaissance in northern europe?
lack of economic growth
"german leonardo" was albrecht durer...
because he had wide-ranging interests
what effect did luther's excommunication by the church have on europe?
his followers separated from he church and formed a new protestant church
the followers of john calvin...
believed in predestination
which of the following was not one of luther's main beliefs?
good works are required for salvation
which of the following was an effect of the counter reformation?
some corrupt practices were ended
the technique used on painting that makes distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer is called
the artistic technique of fading from one color to another is known as
the works of durer and breugel depicted
daily life
the intellectual movement during the renaissance that tried to apply the wisdom of the ancients to the renaissance world was called
renaissance author who rote a guide for rulers and princes, advising them how to gain and keep power was
sistine chapel painter, David and the Pieta sculptor
a pardon for sins committed during one's lifetime is called an
renaissance means
german monk who challenged the church's sale of indulgences and corruption was
Martin luther
the idea that God had long ago determined who would be saved was called
protestant reformer who was trained as a priest and lawyer and brought the protestant reformation to geneva was
john calvin
the founder of the church of england
Henry VIII
contrapposto (counterpoise)
how did the renaissance create a new emphasis on individual achievement?
Renaissance viewed as a rebirth of the arts, Renaissance ideal was person
with talent in many fields, at heart of Italian Renaissance was a movement
known as humanism, based on study of classical culture, focused on worldly
subjects, not religious, believed education should stimulate individual's
creative powers, returned to the humanities, subjects taught in ancient
Greece and Rome, ideal of the Renaissance put emphasis on individual
achievement and mastery in many fields
in what ways was the renaissance both a rebirth and a great leap forward in the arts?
Renaissance art reflected humanist concerns, painted religious figures
yet as normal people not as a different form, studied ancient Greek and
Roman works of art, revived many classical forms, painted classical figures
such as Greek gods and goddesses, peasant life, daily life, this made it a
rebirth, new techniques developed to make art more realistic, learned rules
of perspective, made distant objects smaller than close up objects, had
a vanishing point, used shading to make objects look three dimensional,
studied human anatomy, drew from live models, able to portray human

body more accurately, rejected Gothic style, adopted columns, arches, and
domes, that had been favored by Greeks and Romans
what were the causes and consequences of the reformation?
Church became increasingly caught up in worldly affairs, popes competed
for political power, popes maintained lavish lifestyle, financed project of
art through increased fees and indulgences, many Christians protested all
of this, Martin Luther triggered a full-scale revolt against the church, tried
to lead a holy life, believed was doomed for eternal damnation, didn't like
Church corruption, drew up 95 theses, arguments against indulgences,
many people supported him, urged people to refuse power of Church, he
was excommunicated

when Henry died, Edward (HIS SON!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!)
passed laws that brought reformation to England, then he died and his
sister wanted to bring Catholicism back, hundreds of Protestants were
burned at the stake, throne then passed to Elizabeth, made a compromise,
found an acceptable middle ground between Protestant and Catholics,
then during the Catholic Reformation, many people from both sides were
killed, also witch hunts broke out, where random women

finally, JEWS WERE OUTLAWED (used as scapegoats) and PUT IN GHETTOS
how did the scientific revolution transform the way people viewed the physical and spiritual world?
Newton also made new laws explaining gravity and other workings of the
universe, his laws stuck for over 200 years,

Before, people thought the Earth was the center of the universe, but
Copernicus made a sun-centered model of the universe, Church and other
experts didn't like this because most teachings were based on arguments
by classical thinkers,

Boyle differentiated between
individual elements and chemical compounds, advances in medicine with
new studies of human anatomy, new ways to prevent infection, closing
wounds with stitches

VERY IMPORTANT---new ways of testing a problem emerged
with observation and experimentation through the scientific method
instead of relying on authorities such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, or the Bible!!!!!
Florence, Milan, Venice, and Genoa grew into trade and manufacturing centers

New interest in ancient Rome, Italy was center of
Roman empire

cities survived Middle Ages,
supporter of the arts
lorenzo de medici
the "magnificent"

clever politician, generous patron of the arts, part
of the Medici family which was one of the most powerful families of the time.. successful bankers, later turned to wool manufacturing
leonardo da vinci..
designed a parachute, flying machine, dissected bodies, was a poet, painted the mona lisa,
northern humanism
stressed education and classical learning, also
emphasized religious themes, believed revival of ancient learning
Thomas More wrote a book on social reform, called Utopia,
describes ideal society,

ideal society
Cervantes (Don Quixote)
Don Quixote is an entertaining tale, mocks
romantic notions of medieval chivalry

Cervantes wrote 37 plays
a government run by church leaders, government of
Geneva when Calvin went there
catholic reformation
Reformation—Inquisition, Persecution - to deal with
Protestants more directly, pope strengthened the Inquisition, or church court, used secret testimony torture, and execution to root out heresy, prepared Index of Forbidden Books, contained books by Luther and Calvin,
the view widely accepted before the scientific
revolution, Ptolemy .................................said Earth was the center of the universe!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
the sun-centered model produced by Copernicus,
largely rejected at first
studied the night sky, looked for evidence that supported
heliocentric model of the universe, recorded findings
Brahe's assistant who looked at his findings and used it to
calculate orbits of planets revolving around the sun, calculations
supported sun-centered view
assembled an astronomical telescope, could observe things
no one had before him, such as Jupiter's moons, scholars attacked
him because observations contradicted ancient views about the
world, church condemned him because ideas challenged teachings
that heavens were fixed, unmoving, and perfect
scientific method
- New approach to science, used observation
and experimentation, used step-by-step process to try to prove a
hypothesis, repeated work many times to confirm findings
rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions, challenged
scholarly traditions of medieval universities, Bacon stressed
experimentation and observation, wanted science to make life better
for people by leading to practical technologies
rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions, challenged
scholarly traditions of medieval universities, Descartes emphasized
human reasoning as best road to understanding, explains how
decided to discard all traditional authorities and search for provable
• Newton—Gravity - formed brilliant theory to explain why planets
moved as they did, wondered whether force that pulled apple to
Earth also controlled movements of the planets, over 20 years,
perfected theory, called the force gravity, thought nature follows all
uniform laws, all motion in universe can be measured and described
mathematically, his laws stuck for over 200 years until some formed
theories that called some of Newton's ideas into question, yet most
of his teachings still hold today
advances in chem/medicine
Robert Boyle distinguished
between individual elements and chemical compounds

Ambroise Paré developed new and more effective
ointment for preventing infection, developed stitches to close
what were the causes and consequences of the age of exploration?
Need for raw materials,

Europeans wanted direct access to riches of Asia,sought a route to Asia that bypassed Mediterranean,

desire for wealth,

Renaissance spirit of inquiry fired people's desire to learn more about lands beyond Europe,

technological improvements made it easier to

cartographers made maps more accurate and sea charts better,

astrolabe was used to determine latitude at sea, better ship,

caravel, combined square sails of European ships with Arab triangular sails,

Columbus sails west looking for India, winds up in America and later people
realized he founded a new land, America,

Magellan was first to sail across
Pacific ocean, Newfoundland was found and claimed by England
what were the characteristics of the major civilizations of the americas?
In the Maya empire, there were cities with pyramid temples, they performed sacrifices,

they had roads where traders could carry valuable cargoes to exchange,

each Mayan city had its own ruling chief, surrounded by nobles,

most Mayas were farmers, grew corn, beans, squash,

made impressive advances in learning, developed hieroglyphic writing system,

kept knowledge in books,

many priests became expert mathematicians,

----------------------------------------------------------------Aztecs settled city of Teotihuacán, well planned, wide roads, massive
temples, large apartment buildings

Aztecs had single ruler, emperor
chosen by council of nobles and priests to lead in war, below nobles served,
then warriors,

the majority of people were commoners who farmed, then slaves,

priests performed rituals they believed pleased Aztec gods and prevented droughts or other disasters,

priests were keepers of Aztec
knowledge, recorded laws and historical events,
in Inca empire,

Sapa Inca exercised absolute power over whole empire, claiming he was divine,
son of the sun god itself, also chief religious leader, owned all the land, herds,
mines, and people, lived in splendor, ran efficient government with chain
of command reaching every village, imposed own language and religion to
people, created great road system with hundreds of bridges, unmatched
until modern times,

all roads led to Cuzco,

surgery on human skull
why did the incan, mayan, aztec empires fall?
Around A.D. 900 Mayas abandoned their cities, leaving great stone palaces
and temples to be lost to jungles, no one knows for sure why they declined,
possibly frequent warfare or overpopulation, at height of Aztec rule,

word reached Tenochtitlán that newcomers from Spain had arrived, they ater overthrew the Aztecs, at height of Incan civilization, was a center of learning and political power, in 1525 emperor Huayna Capac died suddenly of unknown plague, no named successor so civil war broke out between
two sons, fighting weakened empire at crucial moment, then faced threat from Spanish invaders
exploration motives
Muslim and Italian merchants controlled most trade
between Asia and Europe, bought prized goods to eastern
Mediterranean ports, Europeans wanted to gain direct access to riches of Asia, sought a route to Asia that bypassed Mediterranean, some still fired by old desire to crusade against Muslims!!!!
new technology (exploration)
Technology—Astrolabe, Caravel, Cartographer - new technologies made it easier to navigate seas, cartographers created better and more accurate maps and sea charts, learned to use astrolabe which helped them determine latitude at sea, also used caravel with combined square and triangle sails to make it easier to go across or against the wind
sail around the world..Magellan was first to circumnavigate the world
greatly underestimated size of
the Earth, no idea two continents lay in his path, when he landed in the Caribbean, thought it was India so called people Indians!!!
circumnavigated the world first..ran out of food, kept pushing on..thought panama was closer, but ended up 3 months at sea
people who heard of riches in the Americas, went
there looking for wealth
landed on coast of Mexico in 1519, went to
Tenochtitlán and were dazzled by grandeur of the city, emperor welcomed Cortez, tensions grew between Aztecs and Spaniards, spanish drove from city, Cortez planned an assault, destroyed Tenochtitlán
arrived in Peru in 1532, right after civil war
between brothers for the throne, captured ruler, asked for huge ransom, got it, and killed ruler anyways, overran Incan heartland,Spain added much of south America to empire
reasons for victory
superior military technology, horses frightened
some Indians, metal helmets and armor, division and discontent among Indians aided Spanish, disease weakened Aztecs and Incas, Indians believed disasters suffered marked world's end,
payment from conquered people, helped Aztecs turn their
capital into a magnificent city
the city built by the Aztecs, well planned, wide roads,
massive temples, large apartment buildings, main avenue with Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon, worshipped powerful nature goddess and rain god, eventually fell to the conquistadors
ruler at the height of the Aztec empire when
the conquistadors invaded, he was killed while trying to push the Spaniards out of the city
Macchu Picchu
one of the great cities of the Incas, around 7,000
feet above sea level, withstood centuries of earthquakes, known for its use of terraced farming on a mountain side, and also no use of mortar
the brother who won the throne after civil war had
weakened empire, was captured by conquistadors and killed, marked end of Inca Empire