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Linguistics: an introduction to language and communication, fifth edition - Chapter 2
This is the 2nd chapter of the 5TH edition of Linguistics: an introduction to language and communication by Akmajian, Demers Farmer, Harnish
Terms in this set (62)
are words used to refer to people (boy), objects (backpack), creatures(dog), places (school), qualities (roughness), phenomena (earthquake) and abstract ideas (love) as if they were all "things."
are words (a, an, the) used with nouns to form noun phrases classifying those "things" (You can have a banana or an apple) or identifying them as already known (I'll take the apple).
An adjective is used to modify or describe a noun, or in some cases an adverb: Ugly dog, beautiful tree, tasty soup.
are words used to refer to various kinds of actions (go, talk) and states (be, have) involving people and things in events (Jessica is ill and has a sore throat so she can't talk or go anywhere).
are words used, typically with verbs, to provide more information about actions, states and events (slowly, yesterday). Some (really, very) are also used with adjectives to modify information about things (Really large objects move slowly. I had a very strange experience yesterday).
are words (at, in, on, near, with, without) used with nouns in phrases providing information about time (at five o'clock, in the morning), place (on the table, near the window) and other connections (with a knife, without a thought) involving actions and things.
A pronoun is a term used in place of a noun: she, you, they, we, and it.
are words (and, but, because, when) used to make connections and indicate relationships between events (Chantel's husband was so sweet and he helped her a lot because she couldn't do much when she was pregnant).
A possessive adjective is used along with a noun to indicate that someone has ownership or possession over that noun.
This is similar to a possessive pronoun, but remember, an adjective ALWAYS modifies/describes a noun.
Example: Her car. "Her" is a possessive adjective because it modifies the noun "car". Her > car.
Example 2: The car is hers. "Hers" is a possessive pronoun because it isn't modifying a noun.
A possessive pronoun replaces a possessive noun.
Example: The car is Sally's. "Sally" is a noun (person, place, thing...). By adding -'s Sally becomes a possessive noun. We then replace Sally with "her" and we have a possessive pronoun. Since
possessive pronoun versus possessive adjective
Possessive pronoun - used in place of a noun
Possessive adjective - modifies a noun
- Never change the category of the base morpheme
- follow derivational suffixes in the order they appear in a word
- inflectional affixes are always suffixes, never prefixes or infixes
- derivational affixes can be both suffixes and prefixes
- often change the category of the base morpheme
when a word accrues some additional feature of meaning independent from its morphological word.
a change in the sound of a word, usually due to the addition of an affix
a change in the meaning of the stem of a word when adding an affix
category change (part-of-speech)
when a word changes from an adjective to a noun, a noun to a verb, etc.
the study of the articulatory and acoustic properties of sounds
the abstract principles that govern the distribution of sound in a language
the list of words for any language
phonetics and phonology
the subfields of linguistics that study the structure and systematic patterning of sounds in the human language
the subfield of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words and the relationships among words
the subfield of linguistics that studies the internal structure of sentences and the relationships among their component parts
the subfield of linguistics that studies the nature of the meaning of individual words, and the meaning of words grouped into phrases and sentences
the subfield of linguistics that studies the use of words in the actual context of discourse
what are words? (two definitions)
Definition 1 - a word is an arbitrary pairing of sound and meaning
Definition 2 - not all sound sequences are words, and not all words have a meaning (such as "it")
a simple word is one that cannot be analyzed or broken down any further into meaningful parts
the complex word is it worth it can be broken down into one or more meaningful parts
complex plural forms
complex plural forms are made up of a simple noun followed by the plural ending
the minimal units of word building in a language; they cannot be broken down any further into recognizable are meaningful parts
the morpheme to which an affix is attached
a morpheme where the plural ending/suffixes -e or -es are added to make the singular morpheme plural
free morphemes versus bound morphemes
a free morpheme can stand alone as an independent word in a phrase, but a bound morpheme cannot
ex. the free morpheme "boy" in standalone, but the morpheme "-s", used to make free morphemes plural, cannot stand alone. "-s" must be added to a free morpheme.
The three types of affixes
prefixes, affixes, infixes (infixes do not exist in the English language)
first person singular
second person singular
third person singular
he, she, it
second person plural
third person plural
- words belonging to major part-of-speech classes
- an unlimited number of new words can be created and added to these classes
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
words belonging to grammatical, or function, classes (such as articles, demonstratives, quantifiers, conjunctions, and prepositions) which in any language tend to include a small number of fixed elements
Conjunctions - and, or
Articles - the, a
Demonstratives - this, that
Quantifiers - all, most , some, few
Prepositions - to, from, at, with
creating new words
entirely new, previously nonexistent words
words formed from the abbreviation, or shortening of two or more words, usually in a string. Acronyms differ from alphabetic abbreviations because the new words created from these abbreviations are spoken as if the acronym was a word itself
GUI ( pronounced "gooey")
similar to acronyms these are new words formed by the abbreviation of entire terms
"prof" for professor
"Dr." for Doctor
Spelling of a word has been shortened but it's pronunciation is not necessarily altered
◊ AZ (Arizona)
◊ MB (megabyte)
New words formed from existing ones by various blending processes
Motel = motor hotel
Infomercial = information commercial
Generally these come from name brand items whose title we come to use as generic names for similar items
Example - Kleenex is a brand of tissue yet many people refer to all tissues as Kleenex
a trait, quality, act, or some behavior associated with a person becomes identified with that person's name
Example - guillotine - an instrument of execution named after its inventor, Dr. Joseph Guillotin
Example - hooker - this word is derived from the prostitutes who followed the troops of General George Hooker
words that are borrowed from other languages with little to no change to their spelling
Example - croissant (French), aloha (Hawaiian), sushi (Japanese)
changing the meaning of words to form a new word
a new meaning can become associated with an existing word
the meaning of an existing word is modified when the language does not seem to have just the right expression for certain purposes. The language does not gain a new word, but since a word is being used in a new way, the language has been augmented
□ Example -we use the nautical words dock, ship, and sailing synonymously with those having to do with space travel. Docking bay 1, space ship, and sailing through space.
□ Example 2 - I'll have to chew on that idea for it while. They just wouldn't swallow that idea. She'll give us time to digest that idea. All of these sentences have to do with the physical realm of food digestion used in the mental realm of ideas and interpersonal exchange of ideas
The use of an existing word can become broader
Example: The word "cool" was originally only used by jazz musicians, but now is applied to almost anything conceivable indicating the approval of the thing in question
the opposite of broadening, narrowing occurs when the meaning of a word has a broad use that is narrowed down to something more specific
Example - the word meet at one time meant any solid consumable food but now it is only used to refer to edible solid flesh
Over time the meaning of words can change
Example - the word lady is the result of a compound of two words hlaf and dighe - "bread kneader" = kneader of bread
the word bad came to have a positive connotation roughly meaning "emphatically good"
Individual words are joined together to form a compound word
Example - the noun ape can be joined with the noun man to form the compound noun ape-man
verbs that occur with objects
Ex. - Pat read the book. ( read + the book = transitive verb + object)
verbs that do not occur with objects
Ex. - Pat died. (died = intransitive verb with no following object)
Backformation is the process of using a word formation rule to analyze a morphologically simple word as if it were a complex word in order to arrive at a new simpler form
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