The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is
An essential amino acid ..
cannot be synthesized in the body in sufficient quantity to meet body needs
What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?
If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a ..
limiting amino acid.
The chemical bond joining adjacent amino acids is called a(n) _____________ bond.
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is
stored as glycogen and/or fat.
Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to
Food proteins are used most efficiently when we
are consuming enough carbohydrates and fats to meet our kcalorie needs.
Edema appears when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because
blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues.
If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen
The liver will convert amino acids to glucose.
vitamin A
required for normal vision and defie
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.
This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.
Folate/folic acid
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun
Vitamin E functions as a(n)In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by
ion concentration.
Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
phosphate and potassium
The body's need for water is approximately ____ milliliter(s) per kcalorie.
Minerals are classified in which way?
Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.
The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
absorption in the small intestine.
The best food source of iron is
A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.
Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism (break down) in our body?
The General Guidelines for daily alcohol intake are (less than) _______ drink per day for men and ________ for women.
Which liver enzyme primarily degrades alcohol?
alcohol dehydrogenase
Which statement best explains drug potentiation (magnified effect of drug) when one drinks excessively while on certain medicines?
Both the medicine and alcohol rely on the MEOS to detoxify them and MEOS can't do both.
Which of the following is true about ethanol after it has been ingested?
Alcohol acts as a toxin in our body and the liver does it's best to get rid of it
What is cirrhosis?
A progresssive scarring and fibrosis of the liver.
How much whiskey is considered one serving of alcohol?
1.5 ounces
Red wines may reduce heart disease when consumed in moderation.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of protein
protein energy malnutrition - diet low in calories, proteins are used as a source of energy, leaving little of this nutrient to build and repair tissues and maintain immune function
a form of protein deficiency, most often seen in starving children, characterized by retarded growth and abdominal distention caused by liver enlargement
sources of B12 for vegan
Fortified soybean milk