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The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is


An essential amino acid ..

cannot be synthesized in the body in sufficient quantity to meet body needs

What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?


If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a ..

limiting amino acid.

The chemical bond joining adjacent amino acids is called a(n) _____________ bond.


When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is

stored as glycogen and/or fat.

Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to


Food proteins are used most efficiently when we

are consuming enough carbohydrates and fats to meet our kcalorie needs.

Edema appears when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because

blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues.

If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen

The liver will convert amino acids to glucose.

vitamin A

required for normal vision and defie

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.

This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.

Folate/folic acid

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun

Vitamin E functions as a(n)In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the


In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the


The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by

ion concentration.

Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of

phosphate and potassium

The body's need for water is approximately ____ milliliter(s) per kcalorie.


Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.

The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is


The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by

absorption in the small intestine.

The best food source of iron is


A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of


This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.


Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism (break down) in our body?


The General Guidelines for daily alcohol intake are (less than) _______ drink per day for men and ________ for women.


Which liver enzyme primarily degrades alcohol?

alcohol dehydrogenase

Which statement best explains drug potentiation (magnified effect of drug) when one drinks excessively while on certain medicines?

Both the medicine and alcohol rely on the MEOS to detoxify them and MEOS can't do both.

Which of the following is true about ethanol after it has been ingested?

Alcohol acts as a toxin in our body and the liver does it's best to get rid of it

What is cirrhosis?

A progresssive scarring and fibrosis of the liver.

How much whiskey is considered one serving of alcohol?

1.5 ounces

Red wines may reduce heart disease when consumed in moderation.


Amino Acids

The building blocks of protein


protein energy malnutrition - diet low in calories, proteins are used as a source of energy, leaving little of this nutrient to build and repair tissues and maintain immune function


a form of protein deficiency, most often seen in starving children, characterized by retarded growth and abdominal distention caused by liver enlargement

sources of B12 for vegan

Fortified soybean milk

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