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American History - Colonial Period
Terms in this set (24)
Practice of using English colonists as conscripted laborers - generally white, and with established term contracts
THEME - Colonial Crisis
Refers to the expansion mindset of colonists living in the American colonies who desire land - specifically Indian land - and their efforts to gain that land through purchase, coercion or violence. The desire for land led to repeated conflicts with Native people and continued this "crisis" up through the 20th century - The "colonial crisis" was still a crisis long after it had left behind the "colonial" period
1676 - Jamestown Virginia, Nathaniel Bacon led up to 1000 settlers in a revolt against governor William Berkeley for his failure to protect the settlers of Jamestown against raiding local Indians. In the process, the revolt targeted local native people and murdered them.
- Bacon's Rebellion explicitly led to:
The Institutionalization of Anti-Black Racism and Racialized Slavery
- Laws passed to institutionalize white privilege (social, psychological and political advantages for all whites)
- To use white supremacy as a class wedge
- To exercise social control over blacks and non-landholding whites
1637 - The Pequot War was an armed conflict between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) which occurred between 1634 and 1638. The Pequots lost the war. At the end, about seven hundred Pequots had been killed or taken into captivity. Hundreds of prisoners were sold into slavery to the West Indies. Other survivors were dispersed. The result was the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-day Southern New England.
King Phillip's War
1673-5 - King Philip's War, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675-78.
Metacom was the second son of Wampanoag chief Massasoit, who had coexisted peacefully with the Pilgrims. Metacom succeeded his father in 1662 and reacted against the European settlers' continued encroaching onto Wampanoag lands. At Taunton in 1671, he was humiliated when colonists forced him to sign a new peace agreement that included the surrender of Indian guns. When officials in Plymouth Colony hanged three Wampanoags in 1675 for the murder of a Christianized Indian, Metacom's alliance launched a united assault on colonial towns throughout the region. Metacom's forces enjoyed initial victories in the first year, but then the Native American alliance began to unravel. By the end of the conflict, the Wampanoags and their Narragansett allies were almost completely destroyed. Metacom anticipated their defeat and returned to his ancestral home at Mt. Hope, where he was killed while walking in the forest.
- Colonists use narratives to distinguish themselves from Native Americans, Spanish, and others who are less civilized.
- TRIBES: Wampanoag, Narraganset (Allies)
American Slavery, American Freedom - Morgan
Edmund S. Morgan's classic 1975 American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia connected the calamity of Bacon's Rebellion, namely the potential for lower-class revolt, with the colony's transition over to slavery: "..But for those with eyes to see, there was an obvious lesson in the rebellion. Resentment of an alien race might be more powerful than resentment of an upper class. Virginians did not immediately grasp it. It would sink in as time went on...."  - MAIN POINT IS CLASS CONFLICT
What Nature Suffers to Groe - Stewart
Stewart provides much detail, not only about agricultural production but also about the social forms of low-country slavery, which, based as it was on the task system, allowed some space, both literally and figuratively, for cultural autonomy. He traces the effects of the sudden demise of slavery and its replacement by various forms of wage labor, as well as the development of new forms of economic endeavor, such as plundering the longleafpine forest for lumber and naval stores, catering to wintering Yankee plutocrats, and providing fresh fruits and vegetables for the dinner tables of Savannah.
The Name of War - Lepore
Argument: War influences language - exploring the language of King Phillip's War
"Indeed, it is the central claim of this book that wounds and words—the injuries and their interpretation—cannot be separated, that acts of war generate acts of narration, and that both types of acts are often joined in a common purpose: defining the geographical, political, cultural, and sometimes racial and national boundaries between peoples."
- "To say that war cultivates language is not to ignore what else war does: war kills."
- In proportion to population, their short, vicious war inflicted greater casualties than any other way in American history."
- "The same cultural anxieties and land conflicts that drove Indians and colonists to war in 1675 would continue to haunt them after the war had ended. Not only that, but their descendants, and their distant relatives, peoples from other parts of Europe and from more western part of America , would fight uncannily similar wars over and over again."
- "In a sense, King Phillip's War never ended."
- Indians attacked English colonists to maintain their "Indianness"
- Was it a war?
- Puritan Conquest?
- Metacom's Rebellion?
- Indian Civil War?
- ALL THREE
Changes in the Land - Cronon
Cronon reminds us-without preaching but with some regret-that Anglo-America was founded on a philosophy of expansive capitalism and environmental waste. He does not argue that all of the environmental changes in New England or all of the changes in Indian culture were caused by the European invaders; his is not a caricature of Puritans falling first on their knees and then on helpless trees and aborigines. But he rightly argues that the social and political invasion of Indian New England entailed a host of "fundamental reorganizations in the region's plant and animal communities" (p. vii). Not all but "much" of the changing ecology of New England was the product of "the colonists' more exclusive sense of property and their involvement in a capitalist economy" (p. viii). "Economic and ecological imperialisms reinforced each other"; "capitalism and environmental degradation went hand in hand" (pp. 161-62).
Damned Women - Reis
More specifically, Reis examines the relationship between Puritans' understanding of women, their perception of evil, and related aspects of Puritan theology in seventeenth-century New England. At the intersection of the three, she finds an explanation for why women were accused of witchcraft more often than men, confessed more often than men, and more frequently accused other women of being witches.
Reis argues that Puritan theology postulated that women and men were equal in the sight of God, and that salvation and damnation were foreordained by God, not chosen by individuals, female or male. Lived religion, however, posed the contradictory suspicion that womanhood and evil were inextricably linked. Puritans believed, Reis suggests, that whereas their particular sins led men to their damnation, women's vile natures brought them to the devil. Because men tended to focus on what they did and women on what they were, men were more likely to repent for their particular sins and women to think of themselves as utterly depraved, as "rebellious wretches against God" (p. 1), or as unredeemable slaves of Satan.
Clergy and laity believed that the devil afflicted the body in order to possess the soul and that the devil seemed to possess women more readily than men. Reis explains that Puritans described the devil's torments in ways consonant with their understanding of women's and men's souls and bodies. They construed the soul in gendered terms as a feminine entity, but they concluded that the soul was far more vulnerable to the devil's molestations when it dwelled in the weaker female body. Because, in their view, women's bodies were weaker, the devil could and did reach women's souls more easily and frequently. In sum, although men and women were equal before God and the devil, women were more likely than men to submit to Satan and to become witches.
Reis argues that the witchcraft episodes of seventeenth-century New England clearly display this sense of women's inherent wickedness. It was women, by and large, whom the devil tortured, hoping to recruit them into his service as witches. It was women who confessed to witchcraft and who, Reis argues, were so assured of their essential sinfulness that they became convinced they had actually covenanted with Satan. Others have suggested that this could be true of some women, but no one has yet argued that it could be the case for a significant number of the accused or made the case so convincingly from such an intricate, yet persuasive, analysis of the multiple meanings of seventeenth-century confessions. That accused women actually came to believe that they were guilty is the key to Reis's book; it is also likely to prove the most controversial of her assertions.
In the Devil's Snare - Norton
"the thrust of In the Devil's Snare is to explain how the experiences of settlers in Maine during King Philip's and King William's wars (1675-1676 and 1689-1697, respectively) shaped the Salem crisis. During the wars, Norton observes, Wabanaki Indians destroyed homes and other property, carried off captives to New France, and inflicted massive violence. Traumatic memories of these events haunted the homeless and occasionally orphaned survivors who fled to Salem and elsewhere in Essex County, Massachusetts. There, Norton argues, Indians afflicted some refugees and their neighbors, often appearing as specters trying to lure them to Satan's cause. The wars challenged New England colonists' notion "that they were a chosen people, charged with bringing God's message to a heathen land previously ruled by the devil" (p. 295). Witchcraft provided an explanation for this unsettling challenge and a rationale for searching out and suppressing its insidious manifesta- tions. The histories of the two wars "and the Salem witchcraft crisis are intricately intertwined," Norton argues. Her book "explicates those links through ... a dual narrative of war and witchcraft" (p. 5). This interrelationship, Norton claims, made Salem in 1692 exceptional among New England witchcraft out- breaks."
What is the impact of religion on colonial America outside of Puritanism?
(First) Great Awakening is a shift toward individualization and democratization of religion. - Helps to lead to the American Revolution - New American identity - collective shared experience.
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening began in the 1730s and lasted to about 1743, though pockets of revivalism had occurred in years prior, especially amongst the ministry of Solomon Stoddard, Jonathan Edwards's grandfather. Edwards's congregation was involved in a revival later called the "Frontier Revivals" in the mid-1730s, though this was on the wane by 1737. But as American religious historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom noted, the Great Awakening "was still to come, ushered in by the Grand Itinerant", the great British Evangelist George Whitefield. Whitefield arrived in Georgia in 1738, and returned in 1739 for a second visit of the Colonies, making a "triumphant campaign north from Philadelphia to New York, and back to the South." In 1740, he visited New England, and "at every place he visited, the consequences were large and tumultuous." Ministers from various evangelical Protestant denominations supported the Great Awakening. In the middle colonies, he influenced not only the British churches, but the Dutch and Germans.
Additionally, pastoral styles began to change. In the late colonial period, most pastors read their sermons, which were theologically dense and advanced a particular theological argument or interpretation. Nathan Hatch argues that the evangelical movement of the 1740s played a key role in the development of democratic thought.[disputed - discuss], as well as the belief of the free press and the belief that information should be shared and completely unbiased and uncontrolled.
These concepts ushered in the period of the American Revolution. This contributed to create a demand for religious freedom. The Great Awakening represented the first time African Americans embraced Christianity in large numbers.
In the later part of the 1700s the Revival came to the English colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, primarily through the efforts of Henry Alline and his New Light movement.
Anne Hutchinson, born Anne Marbury (1591-1643), was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted,(charge of "traducing [slandering] the ministers") then banished from the colony with many of her supporters. (Two trials - one civil, one clerical - she was banished from the colony and the church)
Roger Williams (c. 1603 - between January and March 1683) was a Puritan, an English Reformed theologian, and later a Reformed Baptist, who was an early proponent of religious freedom, separation of church and state, and the Free Will Baptist movement.
He was expelled by the Puritan leaders because they thought that he was spreading "new and dangerous ideas", so he began the colony of Providence Plantation in 1636, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams was a member of the first Baptist church in America, the First Baptist Church of Providence.
Was post-1776 expansion the same as colonial expansion? Or was it different?
Forced Founders - British government puts checks on colonial and then US westward expansion
What was the impetus for racialized slavery?
Kathleen Brown - gender became a template for how colonists understood the hierarchies of race like they had of gender - Identities of individual freedom gains a foothold, and it's only open to whites
1763 - Pontiac's War, or Pontiac's Rebellion was a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754-1763). Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. The war is named after the Odawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict.
The war began in May 1763 when Native Americans, offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst, attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.
Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other atrocities were widespread. The ruthlessness and treachery of the conflict was a reflection of a growing divide between the separate populations of the British colonists and Native Americans. Contrary to popular belief, the British government did not issue the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in reaction to Pontiac's War, though the conflict did provide an impetus for the application of the Proclamation's Indian clauses. This proved unpopular with British colonists, and may have been one of the early contributing factors to the American Revolution.
The Proclamation of 1763
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, which forbade all settlement past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.
Subjects Unto the Same King - Pulsipher
Indians and English in seventeenth-century New England clashed over issues of sovereignty as well as over land and culture.
Pulsipher presents New England as a kaleidoscope of competing and colliding interests. There were struggles for authority between colonies and religious groups, between colonies and the Crown, between colony and colony, between tribe and tribe, and between the generations in colonies and tribes. Indians saw themselves as allies of the colonists, not subordinates, and expected relations of equality and reciprocity.
Narragansetts, Wampanoags, and Mohegans all "went over the heads" of colonial officials and appealed directly to the king in England about issues involving land and interference in native government, a strategy that implied they were subjects with equal access to royal authority and protection. King Philip's War, an explosion easily attributed to growing English pressure on Indian land, was also a struggle over authority. Confronted with increasingly blatant English assaults on their sovereignty, Indians chose to fight rather than submit, a position against which the colonies could, for once, unite. Even English victory involved assertions of authority, as Connecticut valley settlers took conduct of the war into their own hands and away from Boston. In the end, though, both Indians and colonists lost authority. The English asserted dominance over the Indians and the Crown asserted dominance over the colonies.
The Anglo-Powhatan Wars were three wars fought between English settlers of the Virginia Colony, and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in the early seventeenth century. The First War started in 1610, and ended in a peace settlement in 1614. Another war between the two powers lasted from 1622 to 1626. The third War lasted from 1644 until 1646, and ended when Opechancanough was captured and killed. That war resulted in a boundary being defined between the Indians and English lands that could only be crossed for official business with a special pass. This situation would last until 1677 and the Treaty of Middle Plantation, which established Indian reservations following Bacon's Rebellion.
Quebec Act 1774
Extends the Proclamation of 1763 Line - another example of Tyranny in the colonies - prevents expansion - Tyrannical Pope as bad as Tyrannical King.
The Quebec Act of 1774 (French: Acte de Québec), formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec. The Act's principal components were:
The province's territory was expanded to take over part of the Indian Reserve, including much of what is now southern Ontario, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota.
Reference to the Protestant faith was removed from the oath of allegiance.
It guaranteed free practice of the Catholic faith.
It restored the use of the French civil law for matters of private law, except that in accordance with the English common law, it granted unlimited freedom of testation. It maintained English common law for matters of public law, including administrative appeals, court procedure, and criminal prosecution.
It restored the Catholic Church's right to impose tithes.
The 1774 Act had wide-ranging effects, in Quebec itself, as well as in the Thirteen Colonies. In Quebec, English-speaking immigrants from Britain and the southern colonies objected to a variety of its provisions, which they saw as a removal of certain political freedoms. Canadiens varied in their reaction; the land-owning seigneurs and ecclesiastics were generally happy with its provisions although the populace resented their loss of liberties.
In the Thirteen Colonies, the Quebec Act had been passed in the same session of Parliament as a number of other acts designed as punishment for the Boston Tea Party and other protests, which the American Patriots collectively termed the "Intolerable" or "Coercive Acts." The provisions of the Quebec Act were seen by the colonists as a new model for British colonial administration, which would strip the colonies of their elected assemblies. It seemed to void the land claims of the colonies by granting most of the Ohio Country to the province of Quebec. The Americans were especially angry that the Act established Catholicism as the state religion in Quebec. The Americans had fought hard in the French and Indian War, and they now saw the provisions given to the former enemy as an affront.
The Half-Way Covenant is a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material things.
Full membership in the tax-supported Puritan church required an account of a conversion experience, and only persons in full membership could have their own children baptized. Second and third generations, and later immigrants, did not have the same conversion experiences. These individuals were thus not accepted as members despite leading otherwise pious and upright Christian lives.
In response, the Half-Way Covenant provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Those who accepted the Covenant and agreed to follow the creed within the church could participate in the Lord's supper. Crucially, the half-way covenant provided that the children of holders of the covenant could be baptized in the church. These partial members, however, couldn't accept communion or vote.
Puritan preachers hoped that this plan would maintain some of the church's influence in society, and that these 'half-way members' would see the benefits of full membership, be exposed to teachings and piety which would lead to the "born again" experience,and eventually take the full oath of allegiance. Many of the more religious members of Puritan society rejected this plan as they felt it did not fully adhere to the church's guidelines, and many of the target members opted to wait for a true conversion experience instead of taking what they viewed as a short cut.[who?]
Salem Possessed -
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