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Bio 2 Chapter 31
Terms in this set (137)
Process by which an organism maintains internal environment w/in a narrow range of conditions.
What is homeostasis necessary for?
optimal cell functioning (ex: temperature, pH, concentration of water, salt, glucose, O2, CO2)
Internal environment is constantly adjusting to internal and external changes.
Derive body heat from environment (ex: reptiles, amphibians, and fish)
How do ectotherms achieve near constant body heat?
behavior/moving or have the constant temp habitat
Derive body heat from metabolic reactions (ex: birds, mammals, tuna, (some Sharks, butterflies, bees)
Benefit/Pro of Endotherm
Warm bodies better at: sensing environment, responding quickly, moving faster
Cost/Con of Endotherm
high amount of energy required to maintain
Behavior of Endotherm to warm up
Move/shiver (requires glucose/fat breakdown ---> 60% heat, 40% ATP) or divert blood from extremities by constricting vessels (keep organs warm)
What are the two types of feedback systems?
Negative & Positive feedback
What is the most common feedback?
Which feedback intensifies change?
Which feedback returns system to normal?
What are the components of negative feedback?
sensor, control center, effector
What are the components of Temp control in body (Negative Feedback)
Temperature receptor in brain, abdomen, skin, veins: sensor.
Hypothalamus in brain: control center
What does Negative feedback use to regulate?
Blood O2, water balance, blood sugar, hormone levels, etc.
Are Positive feedback systems common or rare?
What is an example of Positive feedback?
Childbirth: contraction--> pressure on cervix--> oxytocin--> increase contraction intensity.
What parts does homeostasis require to work together?
Cells--> Tissues--> Organs--> Organ systems
Dozens to billions of structurally similar cells that perform a small number of related functions.
Other than cells, tissues may include __________?
What are the four types of tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve
Discrete structures of 2 or more tissues types that perform complex functions
Groups of organs that function in a coordinated manner
Function of epithelial tissue
cover body, line cavities, form glands.
location of epithelial tissue
skin, digestive/respiratory/urinary/reproductive tracts, circulatory systems, glands.
What are the types of attachment in epithelial tissue?
desmosomes (stretchy), tight junctions (waterproof/leakproof)
layer of proteins that provide support, strength, flexibility to epithelial sheets.
3 types of epithelial tissue
simple epithelial, stratified epithelial, glands epithelial.
1 cell thick, lines most of digestive/respiratory/urinary/ reproductive/ circulatory systems
Thin, flat (simple epithelial)
simple squamous: rapid diffusion (ex: lungs, capillaries)
Round (simple epithelial)
simple cuboidal: secretory, absorptive, or excretory (ex: kidney, pancreas, salivary gland)
Tall, Nuclei in a raw near BM (simple epithelial)
Simple Columnar:high secretion or absorption (stomach, small intestine)
2 cellular extensions: microvilli, cilia.
Tall, nuclei vary (simple epithelial)
PseudoStratified: moisten, protect airways (almost exclusive to larger respiratory airways(nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi)
Cellular extension: cilia
several cells thick, can withstand considerable wear and tear
Location of Stratified Epitheliam
Skin, just inside body openings (mouth, anus, vagina, esophagus)
Rapid cell division
cells fill with strong proteins (keratin)
cells die and form tough, flexible, waterproof barrier.
When are skin cells replaced?
every 2 weeks
Cell shape of Stratified Epitheliam
can be squamous, cuboidal, or columnar
Transitional (Stratified Epitheliam)
tissues that stretch (bladder, ureters, ureathra)
Groups of cells specialized to secret large quantities of substances outside of cell
secrete substance to specific area thru ducts (Ex: salivary glands (sweat), Mammary glands (milk)
secrete substances into blood (Ex: adrenals, pancreas, pituitary, thyroid)
Product of Endocrine
Which cells can respond to hormones?
only the ones with the right protein receptors
What are the 2 glands that are made of nerves (NOT epithelial tissue):
Posterior pituitary, adrenal medulla
Connective tissue function
support and strengthen other tissues, help bind tissue into structures (skin, muscle)
Location of Connective tissue
all organs, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone, fat, blood, lymph
Connective tissue discription
cells float in an abundance of extracellular matrix (fluid/protein)
Extracellular Matrix can be...
thin/watery or thick/hard
3 types of connective tissue
1.) Loose Connective Tissue
2.) Dense Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Most abundant, scattered cells in thick fluid
Function of loose connective tissue
connect, support, surround other tissue types and organs; framework of organs.
Dense Connective Tissue
Packed with collagen fibers
Tendons and ligaments
parallel collagen, tremendous strength only in direction of fibers
connect bone to muscle
connect bone to bone
Irregular meshwork of collagen
resists stress in any direction (not as strong)
Specialized Connective Tissue
Most diverse group (ex: cartilage, bone, fat, blood, lymph)
Location of specialized connective tissue
Ears, nose, trachea, vertabrae
strong support; cells in hard, nonliving matrix
Deposits that harden extracellular matrix
concentric circles of cells/minerals deposits form around
Are the bones in cells alive?
Long term energy storage and insulation
what is the scientific name for fat cells/tissue
What happens if you gain weight?
adipose cells increase in size and number
What happens if you lose weight
adipose cells decrease in size only
Blood and Lymph
Liquid matrix in which proteins and cells are suspended
Red Blood cells (carry O2), Leukoctyes (immunity), platelets (clots)
reduce extracellular fluid (edema), filter blood (immunity, absorb fat)
Muscle Tissue function
create movement b/c contractile filaments that move past each other and change size of cell
Location of Muscle tissue
all over the body
Description of Muscle tissue
long, thin cells can contract (shorten) if stimulated, then passively relax (lengthen)
3 types of muscle tissue
voluntary/conscious control, locomotion and posture
Discription of skeletal muscle
Linear striated muscle. Long, multi-nucleated cells composed of myofibers
actin and myosin myofibrils repeated as a sarcomere
how is the skeletal muscle stimulated to contract?
somatic nervous system
spontaneously active/involuntary control, rapidly spread electrical signal
Description of cardiac muscle
branched striated muscle w/ 1 or 2 nuclei in myocardium of heart
how is the cardiac muscle stimulated to contract?
autonomic nervous system
spontaneously active/involuntary control, NOT striated, slow/sustained contractions
description of smooth muscle
spindle shaped, no pattern of contractile proteins (smooth)
Location of smooth muscle
digestive and respiratory tracts, uterus, bladder, blood vessels, eye skin
how is the smooth muscle stimulated to contract?
autonomic nervous system
Nerve tissue function
produce and conduct electrical signals for ability to sense and respond to environment
Location of nerve tissue
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
brain, spinal, retina
nerves (sensory and motor neurons)
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
ANS- Sympathetic nervous system
Fight or flight (stress)
ANS- Parasympathetic nervous system
rest and digest (relax)
Description of Nerve tissue
nerve cell (neuron): many short dendrites, 1 cell body, 1 long axon (can branch)
receives info from other neuron on environment
has nucleus and organelles
sends info to muscle, gland or other nueron
helper cells that surround, support, insulate and protect neurons
substance produced by glial cells that insulate neurons and hep send info faster
2 types glial cells
schwaan cells (PNS), oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Most organs have how many tissue types?
outer layer (Nerve tissue)
Epidermis: epithelial tissue
lower layer (nerve tissue)
Dermis: connective tissue with bloody supply, nerve supply, muscle, glands, lymph, hair follicles
Lowest layer (nerve tissue)
adipose tissue (fat) with proteins from connective tissue
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body.
The framework of the body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues, which protects and supports the body tissues and internal organs.
the set of organs that allows a person to breathe and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body.
the network of vessels through which lymph drains from the tissues into the blood.
also known as the renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. Each kidney consists of millions of functional units called nephrons.
the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.
Which of the following are functions of neuroglia?
a.) conduct efferent electrical signals
b.) maintain and circulate interstitial fluid
c.) distribute incoming sensory information
d.) insulate and improve neuron function
B & D
Identify which structure in more developed animal brains is responsible for temperature control and is therefore sometimes referred to as the thermostat of the body.
What organ system of the body is responsible for protecting the body against mechanical injury, invasion of pathogens, and dehydration?
Which of the following are primary tissue types of the body of an animal?
a.) nerve tissues
b.) epithelial tissue
c.) pulmonary tissues
d.) hypodermal tissues
A & B
The study of biology can be understood through the organizational hierarchy of life. Each level of life builds upon the next level, and this increasing complexity is what leads from molecules up to an entire ecosystem. How is the tissue level different from the other levels of life?
a.) A tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to perform a function.
b.) A tissue is a collection of molecules and reactions that form the basic unit of all living things.
c.) A tissue is a group of multiple organs that work together to perform vital functions for the organism.
d.) A tissue is an individual living thing, such as a bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal.
central nervous system
anatomical division that includes brain and spinal cord
functional division responsible for involuntary control of smooth mucles
motor (efferent) system
functional division that stimulates muscle contractions
Select the statement that best describes homeostasis.
a.) spontaneous induction of changes to alter the internal equilibrium of the body
b.) physiological mechanisms that decrease heart rate
c.) prevention of changes from happening within the human body
d.) maintenance of a dynamic state of balance within the human body
Select the term below that best identifies the portion of a homeostatic feedback mechanism whose function is to determine the set point and specify a response to homeostatic imbalance.
a.) control system
b.) efferent pathway
e.) afferent pathway
Match the following:
1.)Ciliated versions of these epithelial cells are important for moving mucus in the respiratory system.
2.) These epithelial cells change shape in response to the amount of liquid an organ contains.
3.) These epithelial cells are important in glands that excrete substances, such as endocrine glands.
4.) In the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across these cells.
Select the term below that best identifies the portion of a homeostatic feedback mechanism whose function is to carry out the response to homeostatic imbalance.
b.) control center
c.) efferent pathway
e.) afferent pathway
loose connective tissue
holds organs in place and connects the epithelium to underlying tissues
fibrous connective tissue
is densely packed with collagen and is found in ligaments and tendons.
is made of collagen and a protein-carbohydrate complex, which make it strong but flexible.
is a mineralized tissue made of osteoblasts within a matrix of collagen.
Which statement best describes the function of the nervous system?
a.) The nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are linked to each other by peripheral nerves.
b.) The nervous system is arranged to receive signals by efferent pathways and to send signals by motor pathways.
c.) The nervous system signals muscle contraction but does not control gland secretion.
d.) The nervous system senses stimuli, integrates information, and generates a response.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a neuron?
a.) Neurons are excitable cells.
b.) Neurons are replaced when damaged.
c.) Neurons all have myelinated axons.
d.) Neurons are the most numerous cells in the brain.
Select the statement that accurately describes tendons and ligaments.
a.) Tendons and ligaments are both made of dense connective tissue with collagen bundles. Tendons connect muscle to bone, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone.
b.) Tendons and ligaments are both made of loose connective tissue with adipose cells. Tendons connect muscle to bone, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone.
c.) Tendons are loose connective tissues with adipose cells that connect muscle to bone, whereas ligaments are dense connective tissues with collagen bundles that connect bone to bone.
d.) Tendons and ligaments are both made of loose connective tissue with adipose cells. Tendons connect bone to bone, whereas ligaments connect muscle to bone.
e.) Tendons and ligaments are both made of dense connective tissue with collagen bundles. Tendons connect bone to bone, whereas ligaments connect muscle to bone.
Select the term below that best identifies the portion of a homeostatic feedback mechanism whose function is to sense changes in the body.
a.) afferent pathway
b.) control center
d.) efferent pathway
protect the body from damage includes the skin and nails
cardiovascular system (circulatory system)
circulates blood and transports nutrients, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
transmits signals throughout the body and control voluntary and involuntary actions.
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