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UCBX Human Nutrition Quiz 3
Chapter 5 - Carbohydrates, sweeterners, and diabetes
Terms in this set (57)
Beneficial bacterial cultures that may protect against virulent microorganisms are called ____________. They are abundantly found in _______________.
Normal range for fasting blood glucose is (1)___________ mg/dl. Fasting hyperglycemia is due to (2)___________, of which there are 2 main types. Type I is due to (3)____________________________ and type II is due to (4)___________________________.
(3) genetics, auto-immune deficiency
(4) insulin resistance due to an intake of too much sugar/fructose, and sedantry lifestyle
_________ are completely non-digestible phenol polymers found in the woody part of fruits and vegetables. It is water __________ and a stool bulking agent.
Hypertriglyceridemia may be caused by a diet high in (1)__________ which can be found most abundantly in (2)________________________ recognized as GRAS by FDA in 1976 and used very much in the U.S. in making soft drinks. Manufacturers use this because it is (3)__________ and (4)__________ than sugar!
(2) HFCS - High fructose corn syrup
[Add] A diet high in HFCS correlates with an increase in __________ rate, and higher ________.
[Add] Fructose is absorbed by ________ (transporter) by facilitated diffusion. The liver takes up fructose and stores it as ____________ or converts it to brand new __________________ (fats).
GLUT-5, glycogen, triglycerides
[Add] _________ do not move in and out of storage in the cell, they are always in the plasma membrane.
[Add] Which 2 cell types put GLUTs onto the plasma membrane from storage?
Skeletal muscles & Fat cells
___________________ is a group of risk factors that significantly increase the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. To be diagnosed with it, one must have 3 of the following 5 risk factors:
a. Abdominal obesity
b. High triglyceride level / Hyperlipidemia
c. Low HDL cholesterol level
d. High blood pressure / hypertension
e. High fasting blood glucose
The enzyme (1)____________________ is a commercially available product that helps prevent the formation of gas by ingestion of (2)____________ (a trisaccharide) and (3)______________ (an oligosaccharide made of 4 monomers). These carbohydrates are found abundantly in (4)___________, the group of foods that include beans, lentils, and peanuts!
(1) beta-galactocidase (beano)
(1)_____________ is a complex carbohydrate made of branched chains of glucose with alpha-1,4 bonds and alpha-1,6 bonds every 30 units. We store a similar molecule in our (2)________ cells called (3)___________ (bonds every 10 units).
Free glucose molecules can be cleaved off of this polymer to increase blood glucose in times of fasting. This is primarily stimulated by the hormone (4)____________ which is secreted when blood glucose levels drop to low normal or below normal.
[Add] The difference between glycogen stored in skeletal muscles vs the liver:
Skeletal muscles use glycogen only for _________. The Liver keeps some of it (Insulin promotes glucose storage) while the hormone glucagon ___________________________________.
fuel, causes the liver to release glycogen into the blood stream
________________ helps lower the pressure in the colon and __________ gastric emptying which can control blood sugar in prediabetics.
__________ are used extensively in jams, jellies, and medicines as a gel-forming thickener. It is a heteropolysaccharide that acts as a prebiotic, which means ______________________________________________.
Pectins, it is food for intestinal bacteria and good for colonic health
Pure glucose has the highest (100) (a)_________________ followed closely by foods with added sugar as their main ingredient, white rice, white bread, and white potato. In contrast, foods like (b)__________, (c)___________, (d)___________, and (e)____________ have the lowest GI.
(a) glycemic index
(c) whole wheat/grains, oatmeal
(d) most fruits & vegetables
(e) sweet potato, legumes
[Add] Diseases linked to a high GI diet include ______________, ______________, ______________, ______________, and ______________.
1. type II diabetes
2. gestational diabetes
4. cardiovascular disease
[Add] #1 cause of blindness in developed world: _____________________________
age related macular degeneration
[Add] Glucose,Fructose, and Galactose are _______________, while Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose are
_____________. They are all simple carbohydrates.
[Add] ______________ are broken down by amylase (enzyme from saliva) to form maltose, which is then broken down into 2 glucose molecules.
[Add] Sucrose binds to the active site on __________ (enzyme), and this puts stress on the bond between the 2 sugars that make up sucrose. The bond breaks, releasing ___________ and ___________.
Similarly, Lactose is broken down by __________(enzyme), releasing _________ and ___________. This enzyme is added to milk to make it lactose free.
sucrase, glucose & fructose
lactase, glucose & galactose
[Add] Name the 5 energy substrates found in blood. Any of these can be taken in as an energy source.
1. Glucose (Brain cells love them!)
2. Amino Acids
3. Fatty Acids (Skeletal muscles love them!)
4. Ketone bodies
[Add] Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules _____________, _____________________, and their spontaneous breakdown product, ___________.
acetoacetate acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone
[Add] __________ in urine is not always an indicator of diabetes. If you just ate, your BG levels could be 120-180/200 mg/dl, at this level (max), the __________ can still process it. Every last glucose molecule gets reabsorbed aka ________________. Excess glucose may leak into urine.
Glucose/sugar, kidneys, renal reabsorption
[Add] Some cells make glucose transporters and store it for later use. A signal ____________ is needed to draw these GLUTs to the surface of the cell. Another signal is _______________, which also lowers insulin resistance and allow cells to respond to insulin again.
[Add] 2 factors to bring down blood glucose. #1 A signal (insulin) #2 A cell receptor (binding site) and proper ___________________
[Add] ____________ is the state of having low blood sugar while ____________ is the state of having high blood sugar.
[Add] The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by the cells in the pancreas's ______________________.
Islets of Langerhans
[Add] Hydrolysis of glycogen is _________________ which also dissipates hunger for a while.
[Add] Athletes practice a method called _______________, by ingesting very rich carbohydrates before a race or competition to increase _________________ by _______%. This gives them more energy and stamina.
Another method is the practice of injecting RBCs is known as _______________(growth factor).
carb-loading, glycogen storage, 30-40
[Add] The ingestion of too much sugar causes ___________________. This causes insulin levels to ___________________ and is harmful to the pancreas, leading to prediabetes. Insulin levels should be more modulate.
pancreas fatigue, fluctuate wildly
[Add] _____________________ and _____________________ (prebiotics) are found in many fruits & vegetables. They are partially digestible and provide food for intestinal bacteria.
[Add] Correlation between ________ stool vol and a _______ rate of stool cancer.
[Add] ______________ happens when pouches form in the wall of the colon. If these pouches get inflamed or infected, it is called ______________. Fiber lowers pressure in the colon and risk of hemorrhoids and diverticulosis.
[Add] In the stomach, you want digestion to go ___________ (gastric emptying), while in the colon/intestines, you want it to go ____________ so ________ are not reabsorbed.
slower, faster, toxins
[Add] Benefits of fibers:
(1)___________ (found in plant cell walls), reduces BG in diabetics, dilutes toxins by delaying stomach emptying.
(2)_______________ (made from monosaccharides) slows down digestions, increases prebiotic intake.
(3)________________(found in oatmeal) can bind to (4)_____________ which reduces transit time of digestion, and act as an (5)_____________ eliciting appropriate immune responses.
[Add] ___________ is used as a drug to treat constipation by decresing transit time of digestion and draws water to itself.
[Add] Negative effects of Fiber include: ______________ (too much fiber in too little water) or ______________ (too much fruit). Fiber also binds to ___________, causing a lower rate of absorption.
constipation, diarrhea, minerals
[Add] Colonic flora species include:
Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Acidophillus and Thermophilis species
[Add] Probiotics (beneficial bacterial cultures):
- increase lactose digestion
- decrease colonic pH
- Protect against food-borne illnesses (virulent bacteria)
[Add] If a cell can't access glucose and is starving, what will it use first? (1)_______________ cos proteins are impt for function. Thus (2)______________ (breakdown of triglycerides) will happen and (3)_________________ will increase in the blood stream. The liver then converts them to (4)____________ bodies.
(3) free fatty acids
[Add] Ketone bodies are _________, if their levels go up, a person will get ____________, if they are diabetic, they will get __________________.
acidic, ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis
[Add] Hallmarks of Diabetes Melitus:
(1) ____________ - damage to the kidneys
(2) ____________ - damage to the nerves
(3) ____________ - damage to the eyes
(4) Heart diseases
[Add] Risk factors for Type II diabetes:
age > 45 yrs
BMI > 30 (Obese)
Ethnicity: Afri-americans, latinos, native amer, asian amer, pacific islanders
[Add] Recommended carb intake (RDA) =
[Add] AMDR for added sugar is ________ of daily energy intake.
[Add] __________ (glucose-fructose disaccharide) is the reference point for other sweeteners.
[Add] Products containing ________________ can be labeled as "sugar free". Some examples are: __________, __________, and __________.
Xyletol, Sorbitol and Mannitol
[Add] Mannitol is used as an _______________ (losing water in the urine), and is used medically when a patient is required to pee alot, or in the reduction of _____________ in brain injuries and ____________.
osmotic diuretic, intracranial pressure, hypertension
- 50x sweeter
- Cheap and heat stable
- may cause bladder cancer
"sweet & low" (Pink packets)
- Neither digested nor absorbed
- 300x sweeter
- may cause bladder cancer
"Splenda" (yellow packets)
- chlorinated sucrose (bombarded with chlorine atoms)
- 600x sweeter
- Heat & pH stable
"Nutrasweet" (Blue packets)
- AAs Dipeptide (phenylalanine and Aspartic acid)
- Digested and absorbed (4 Kcal/g)
- 200x sweeter
- heat destroys it
- dangerous for ppl with phenylketonuria
- A genetic deficiency of the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to Tyrosine (AAs).
- Tyrosine is highly essential as it makes: thyroid hormones, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine etc
- Ppl with this cannot eat meat, dairy or diet sodas.
- If taken, can cause mental retardation, comas, seizures
[Add] Acesulfame K
"Sunette and Sweet One"
- used in conjuction with aspartame & saccharin to lose the bitter taste
- Neither digested nor absorbed
- 200x sweeter
- Heat & pH stable
- made from lactose
- almost as sweet as sucrose
- found in mushrooms, shrimp
- Completely absorbed --> 4 Kcal/ gram
- made for ppl with phenylketonuria or diabetes
- 7000-13000 X sweeter
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