179 terms

Civics Final

Goals 1-5 + Supreme Court Cases
Mayflower Compact
First document to establish concept of self-government.
First successful English Colony in New World
To make money
Purpos of Jamestown settlement
Religious Freedom
Purpose of Plymouth and Mass Bay settlements
Wanted to purify chuch
Wanted to break away from church
John Winthrop
First governor of Mass Bay Colony; said "We shall be as a city upon a hill"
Colony set up as a debtor's colony
Middle Colonies
Region of colonies known as Bread Colonies
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First written constitution in colonies
Maryland Toleration Act
Document allowing religious freedom to all Christians, including Catholics
Virginia House of Burgesses
First representative assembly in colonies
Zenger Case
Colonial case establishing freedom of the press
Articles of Confederatoin
First government after Revolutionary War; did not create a strong central government
Salutary Neglect
Non-enforcement of trade regulations by England
Exploitation of colonies for benefit of mother country; trade restrictions placed on colonies by Britain
Boston Massacre
Event involving colonists threatening British soldiers and the death of Crispus Attucks
Tea Act
Act leading to Boston Tea Party
Intolerable Acts
Acts passed as a result of the Boston Tea Party
Thomas Jefferson
Author of Declaration of Independence
Life, liberty, property
John Locke's natural rights
Social Contract
John Locke's belief that a man's natural states is free but a man chooses to form a government to protect his property
Common Sense
Pamphlet by Thomas Paine encouraging the colonies to declare independence
Northwest Ordinance
Law outlining steps for statehood for land around Ohio River Territory
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellion led by farmers in Mass who were angry about losing land from taxes
Virginia Plan
Said colonies should be represented in Congress according to population; led to Great Compromise
New Jersey Plan
Said colonies should be represented in Congress equally; led to Great Compromise
Great Compromise
Said that large states would be satisied by representation in the House and smaller states would be satisfied by representation in the Senate
Slaves should be counted as property
Northern viewpoint on representation
Slaves should be counted as people
Southern viewpoint on representation
3/5 Compromise
Said that slaves count as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of representation
Madison, Hamilton, John Jay
Author's of Federalist Papers to encourage ratification of the Consitution
Political party opposed to ratification of the Consitution
James Madison
Father of Consitution
Bill of Rights
Added to Consitution to satisfy Anti-federalists
Popular Sovereignty
Principle of Constitution meaning that people are the source of all governmental power
Meaning one federal government and several state governments
Limited Government
Principle of Consitution meaning that the government is not all powerful and it can only do what the people allow it to do
Separation of Powers
Principle that the US Federal Government be divided between 3 branches
Checks and Balances
System in which branches limit each other from being too powerful; created by Montesquieu
States purpose of Constitution
Article I
Consitutional Article of Legislative Branch
Article II
Consitutional Article of Executive Branch
Article III
Consitutional Article of Judicial Branch
Article IV
Full Faith and Credit Clause; Relations among States
Article V
Provisions for Amendments
Article VI
Supremacy Clause
Article VII
Bill of Rights
Added to Consitution to please Anti-federlists; outlines rights in first 10 Amendments
Amendment 1
Freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and to petition (Amendment)
Amendment 2
Right to bear arms (Amendment)
Amendment 3
People do not have to quarter soldiers (Amendment)
Amendment 4
No unwarranted searches and seizures (Amendment)
Amendment 5
Rights to due process (Amendment)
Amendment 6
Right to trial by jury (Amendment)
Amendment 7
Right to settle disputes (Amendment)
Amendment 8
No excessive bail or cruel or unusual punishment (Amendment)
Amendment 9
Powers reserved to the people (Amendment)
Amendment 10
Powers reserved to the state governments Amendment)
Amendment 11
Places limits on suits against states (Amendment)
Amendment 12
Revises procedures for electing President and VP (Amendment)
Amendment 13
Abolishes Slavery (Amendment)
Amendment 14
Defines US citizenship; guarantess all citizens equal protection of the law (Amendment)
Amendment 15
Prohibits restictions on right to vote based on race or color (Amendment)
Amendment 16
Gives Congress the power to levy an income tax (Amendment)
Amendment 17
Enables voters to elect senators directly (Amendment)
Amendment 18
Prohibition (Amendment)
Amendment 19
Gives women right to vote (Amendment)
Amendment 20
Chages dates of congressional and presidential terms (Amendment)
Amendment 21
Repeals Prohibition (Amendment)
Amendment 22
Limits presidents to two terms in office (Amendment)
Amendment 23
Gives residents of DC right to vote (Amendment)
Amendment 24
Abolishes poll taxes (Amendment)
Amendment 25
Establishes procedures for succession to the presdency (Amendment)
Amendment 26
Set voting age at 18 years old (Amendment)
Amendment 27
Delays congressional pay raises until term following their passage (Amendment)
Supremacy Clause
Law stating that federal law is supreme to state law
Necessary and Proper Clause
aka Elastic Clause; Law stating that Congress is given the power to do all things necessary and proper to carry out their powers
Full Faith and Credit Clause
States must recognize laws, public records, and court decisions of other states (Law)
Establishment Clause
Law stating that a state cannot establish a religion
Free Exercise Clause
Law stating that citizens can practice whatever religion they want
Equal Protection Clause
aka 14th Amendment; Law stating that a state cannot discriminate against its citizens
Delegated Powers
Powers given to the federal government
Expressed Powers
Powers spelled out in Consitution; Delegated Power; Ex: Power to establish lower federal courts or power to declare war
Implied Powers
Powers given to the federal government by the Elastic Clause; DelegatedPower
Inherent Powers
Powers that the federal government is assumed to have because it is a sovereign state; Delegated Power
Reserved Powers
Powers that the US Consitution does not grant to the federal government but does not deny to the states; Ex: Establishing schools or conducting elections
Concurrent Powers
Powers that both National and State governments possess and exercise; Ex: Power to tax or power to establish lower courts
House of Representatives
Reps serve 2 year terms;must be 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in state he/she represents; has power to impeach President; money bills always begin here
People serve 6 year terms; must be 30 years old, a citizen for 9 years, and live in state he/she represents; carries out trial for impeachment; has power to filibuster
When a committee agrees to ignore a bill
A vote that limits floor debate and ends filibuster
Joint Committee
Committee that has members of both houses
Speaker of the House
Leader of the House
Vice President
Leader of the Senate
President Pro-Tempore
Second in command of Senate
Serves 4 year term, must be 35 years old, a natural born citizen, and live in the US for at least 14 years; can only serve for 2 terms; roles are Chief Executive, Commander in Chief, Chief of State, Economic Leader, Chief of Party, Chief Legislator, Chief Diplomat, and Chief Citizen
Presidential Succession Act of 1974
Law stating that presidential vacancies are filled in the order of: VP, Speaker of House, President Pro Tempore, Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury
Executive Agencies
Executive Departments
State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Resources, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veteran Affiars, Homeland Security
War Powers Act of 1973
Law stating that a predisend must notify Congress in advance before sending troops to battle or declaring war
Executive Branch
Branch that can name nominees for the Court, veto legislation, grant pardons
Legislative Branch
Branch that can refuse nominations for Court, override vetos, impeach the president or judges
Judicial Branch
Branch that can deem laws or presidential actions unconsitutional
NC Executive Branch
Governor & Lieutenant Governor; has power of clemency
NC Legislative Branch
General Assembly; 120 members in House of Representatives, 50 members in Senate, leader of Senate is LT Governor
NC Judicial Branch
7 justices, 1 chief justice; 4 levels of courts: Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Superior Courts, District Courts
Local law passed by legislature
Rule enacted by a local government
A city's basic laws
Political Spectrum
Left (Liberal)---------Moderate----------Right (Conservative)
Extreme Left
Extreme Right, opponent of porgress and change
Individual components of a political party's platform
Closed Primary
Election in which only declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that party's nominees
Open Primary
Election in which voters need not declare their preference to vote for a party's nominees
Free from party ties or bias
Politician who has already been elected to office
Meeting of a political party to conduct party business
Political Action Committee
Political organization established by a corporation, labor union, or special interest group designed to support candidates by contributing money
Soft Money
Donations given to political parties and not designated for a particular candidate's election campaign
Recall Election
Special election where citizens can vote to remove a public official from office
Voters of a state can propose a law by gathering signatures and having the proposition placed on the ballot
Legislatures send issues to be voted directly by the people
Political Machine
Strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes
Movement starting with the people
Citizenship, age, residency
Universal Voting Requirements (3)
Geographic are containing a specific # of voters
Polling place
Location where voting is carried out
Exit Poll
Survey taken at polling places of how people voted
The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
Electoral College
Officially elects the President and VP
Number of NC Electoral votes
Number of votes required to win presidency; if no candidate recieves this number, the House elects the President and the Senate elects the VP
Techniques include: Glittering Generalities, Name Calling, Bandwagon, Name Calling, Card-Stacking, Just Plain Folks, Celebrity Testimonials, Symbols/Transfer
False verbal statement that defames a person
Published words that falsely defame a person
Interest Groups
Members share certain views and work to shape public policy
Interest Groups pressure legislators in hopes that legislation would be passed
Discussing an issues between two or more parties with competing interests with an aim of coming to an agreement
Opposing sides consult with a third party and that party in turn provides a legally binding decision that solves the dispute
A third party helps the disagreeing parties come to an agreement (This agreement is not legally binding)
US Supreme Court
Highest US Court; created by the US Consitution
US Court of Appeals
Created by Congress; this court was designed to relieve the US Supreme Court; there are 12 of these courts
US District Courts
Federal trial courts created by Congress; hears both civil and criminal cases that are federal crimes; there are 94 of these courts
Exclusive Jurisdiction
Power of federal courts alone to hear a case
Concurrent Jurisdiction
Federal and State courts share the power to hear cases
Original Jurisdiction
Power of a court to hear a case first
Appellate Jurisdiction
Authority to review decisions of inferior courts
Negotiation, Compromise, Consensus
How to Resolve Conflict
McCulloch v Maryland
Declared that a state cannot tax the federal government and that requiring federal banks to use special paper to print money was a form of taxation (Supreme Court Case)
Swann v Board of Education
Busing was ordered to desegregate Charlotte schools (Supreme Court Case)
Roe v Wade
Declared that a state cannot take away a woman's right to an abortion (Supreme Court Case)
Plessy v Ferguson
Establish "separate but equal" facilities (Supreme Court Case)
Dred Scott v Sanford
Claimed that a state cannot deprive one of his properties and that a slave is property (Supreme Court Case)
Brown v Board of Education
Overturned Plessy v Ferguson by saying "separate but equal" is unequal
Engel v Vitale
Requiring students to recite a prayer in schools is a violation of First Amendment rights (Supreme Court Case)
Korematsu v United States
Allowed internment camps after attack on Pearl Harbor and ruled that restrictions of a certain racial group may be justified during circumstances of emergency; LIMITED rights of citizens (Supreme Court Case)
Furman v Georgia
Raised question of racial imbalances in uses of death penalty (Supreme Court Case)
Mapp v Ohio
Illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible in court (Supreme Court Case)
Gibbons v Ogdens
Federal government, rather than the state governments, has the power regulate interstate commerce (Supreme Court Case)
Texas v Johnson
Burning the US flag is a form of expression and limiting one's right to burn the flag would be limiting an individual's First Amendment rights (Supreme Court Case)
Worcester v Georgia
No one had the right to be on Cherokee land without their consent, was not enforced by President Andrew Jackson (Supreme Court Case)
Hazelwood v Kuhlmeir
A student's right to freedom of press is limited within a school environment; LIMITED rights of students (Supreme Court Case)
Olmstead v United States
Illegally obtained information from wiretapping is admissible in court; not protected by Fourth Amendment (Supreme Court Case)
Marbury v Madison
Established Judicial Review (Supreme Court Case)
Gideon v Wainwright
All accused individuals are entitled to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford one; EXTENED rights of citizens (Supreme Court Case)
Schenck v United States
First Amendment right of free speech is limited in time of war; created a precedent that First Amendment guarantees are not absolute (Supreme Court Case)
Miranda v Arizona
The accused must be informed of his or her rights before arrest; EXTENED rights of citizens (Supreme Court Case)
Writ of Habeas Corpus
Court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
Bill of Attainder
Law that punishes a person accused of a crime without fair trial or fair hearing in court; illegal
Ex Post Facto
Law that would allow a person to be punished for an action that was not against the law when it was committed; illegal
Writ of Certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review
Tinker v Des Moines
Students could wear armbands to protest Vietnam War because the armbands were not disruptive to the school environment; EXTENDED rights of students (Supreme Court Case)
New Jersey v TLO
Students can be searched under reasonable suspicion, LIMITED rights of students (Supreme Court Case)
Regents of the University of California v Bakke
Admissions quota for minority students violated the equal protection clause (Supreme Court Case)
State v Mann
Established supremacy of North Carolina Consitution and upheld power that judicial review lies with NC Supreme Court (Supreme Court Case)
Leandro v State of NC
State of NC must do whatever is necessary to provide a "sound and basic education" to all students; ordered pre-K programs for at-risk students and claimed that economically disadvantaged students need services beyond those provided to the general population (Supreme Court Case)
In Re Gault
The State must provide due process for juveniles (Supreme Court Case)