Adrenal cortex-promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Ovaries-in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen. Testes-in males, stimulates sperm production
Growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin
Bones, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues-stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Ovaries-in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone. Testes-in males, promotes secretion of testosterone
Breast-in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Thyroid gland-stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Kidney-increases water reabsorption (water returns to the blood)
Uterus-stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor. Breast-promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands
Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone. Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine
Increases energy production from all food types. Increases rate of protein synthesis
located near, beside;beyond
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Bones-increases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. Kidneys-increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion. Small intestine-increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
Body cells-promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and help depress inflamamatory and immune responses
Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldersterone)
Kidneys-increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys
Sex hormones (any of the androgens, estrogens, or related steroid hormones) produced by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortices
In females, possibly responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (Otherwise, effects in adults are insignificant.)
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Sympathetic nervous system target organs-hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sympathomimetic), increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
separation, destruction, loosening
forming, producing, origin
Liver and blood-increases blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in liver (glycogenolysis) and conversion of other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood; converts glycogen to glucose
Tissue cells-lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells; converts glucose to glycogen
glue; neurological tissue
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
bone marrow; spinal cord
together, joined with, beside
radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o
lower back, loins
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
stiff, bent, crooked
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
spinal cord, bone marrow
os (pl. ossa)
-clasis, -clast, -clasia
binding, surgical fixation, fusion
spine, vertebral column
metacarpus, bones of the hand (meta = beyond, after, change; carpus = wrist)
flesh, connective tissue
finger or toe
Open, compound fracture
bone pierces the skin and causes extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels
Closed, simple fracture
bone is broken with no external wound present
bone is partially bent and partially broken; found more commonly in children
broken ends of a bone segment are wedged into one another
immobility of a joint
Carpal Tunnel syndrome
pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which flexor tendons and the median nerve pass).
grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction.
hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis characterized by excessive uric acid in the blood and around the joints.
herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposis (center gelatinous material within an intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae. Occurs most often in the lumbar region.
increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic section of the vertebral column; hunchback or humpback
forward curvature of the lumbar spine; swayback
group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue. There is no cure, and most individuals die before the age of 20 years. Duchenne's dystrophy is the most common form
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue.
decrease in bone density and an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of fractures.
trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability.
trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch
spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck that may be congenial or acquired; wryneck.
choroids, Provides blood supply for the entire eye.
cornea, Permits light into the eye; transparent.
tear, lacrimal sac
iris, Colored muscular layer that surrounds the pupil.
retina, Composed of nerve endings; responsible for the receptionand transmission of light impulses.
tympanic membrane, Vibrates when struck with sound. aka ear drum.
eustachian tube or fallopian tube Equalizes air pressure in the middle ear with outside atmosphere.
dullness of vision: ambly - dull, opia - vision
night blindness: nycto - night, darkness, alo - blind
normal, perfect vision
pronounced: an/eye/so/core/ē/a aniso-unequal, cor/o-pupil, ia -condition
combining form for lens (phacolysis treatment for phacosclerosis)
inflamed eye condition caused by foreign material xen/o - foreign, strange don't confude with : xero - dry, and xantho - yellow
cor/o, core/o, pupill/o
without/hearing; total deafness
Ringing buzzing, or roaring sound in the ears.
sensation of moving around in space. A feeling of spinning or dizziness. Usually a result of inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium. (Vestibular portion and semicircular canals).