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127 terms

Medical Terminology Simplified (Chapter 9,10,11)

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calc/o
calcium
gluc/o, glyc/o
sugar, sweetness
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands
pituitar/o
pituitary glands
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland
toxic/o
poison
-dipsia
thirst
-trophy
development, nourishment
hyper-
excessive, above, normal
hypo-
under, below, deficient
neur/o
nerve
dwarf/
short or undersized person
gigant/
tall or oversized person
acr/o
extremity
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Adrenal cortex-promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Ovaries-in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen. Testes-in males, stimulates sperm production
Growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin
Bones, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues-stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Ovaries-in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone. Testes-in males, promotes secretion of testosterone
Prolactin
Breast-in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Thyroid gland-stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Kidney-increases water reabsorption (water returns to the blood)
Oxytocin
Uterus-stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor. Breast-promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands
Calcitonin
Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone. Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine
Increases energy production from all food types. Increases rate of protein synthesis
para-
located near, beside;beyond
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Bones-increases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. Kidneys-increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion. Small intestine-increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
Body cells-promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and help depress inflamamatory and immune responses
Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldersterone)
Kidneys-increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys
Sex hormones (any of the androgens, estrogens, or related steroid hormones) produced by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortices
In females, possibly responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (Otherwise, effects in adults are insignificant.)
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Sympathetic nervous system target organs-hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sympathomimetic), increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
-lysis
separation, destruction, loosening
-gen, -genesis
forming, producing, origin
-emia
blood condition
Glucagon
Liver and blood-increases blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in liver (glycogenolysis) and conversion of other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood; converts glycogen to glucose
Insulin
Tissue cells-lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells; converts glucose to glycogen
cerebr/o
cerebrum
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glue; neurological tissue
mening/o, meninigi/o
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
myel/o
bone marrow; spinal cord
-paresis
partial paralysis
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis
syn-, sym-
together, joined with, beside
-drome
run, running
-ictal
seizure, attack
kal/i
potassium
natr/o
sodium
radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o
nerve root
crani/o
cranium
stern/o
sternum
cost/o
ribs
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
verterbrae
humer/o
humerous
lumb/o
lower back, loins
my/o
muscle
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
tendon
ankyl/o
stiff, bent, crooked
arthr/o
joint
cervic/o
neck
lamin/o
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
myel/o
spinal cord, bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
os (pl. ossa)
bone
-asthenia
weakness
-clasis, -clast, -clasia
break
-desis
binding, surgical fixation, fusion
-schisis
split, fissure
spin/o
spine
rachi/o
spine, vertebral column
metacarp/o
metacarpus, bones of the hand (meta = beyond, after, change; carpus = wrist)
kinesi/o
movement, motion
scoli/o
crooked, curved
petr/o
stone
sarc/o
flesh, connective tissue
lei/o
smooth
rhabd/o
rod-shaped, striated
dactyl/o
finger or toe
xiph/o
sword-shaped
Open, compound fracture
bone pierces the skin and causes extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels
Closed, simple fracture
bone is broken with no external wound present
Greenstick fracture
bone is partially bent and partially broken; found more commonly in children
Impacted fracture
broken ends of a bone segment are wedged into one another
Ankylosis
immobility of a joint
Carpal Tunnel syndrome
pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within
the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which flexor tendons and the median nerve pass).
Crepitation
grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction.
Gout
hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis characterized by excessive uric acid
in the blood and around the joints.
Herniated Disk
herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposis (center gelatinous material within an
intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae. Occurs most often in the lumbar region.
Kyphosis
increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic section of the vertebral column; hunchback or humpback
Lordosis
forward curvature of the lumbar spine; swayback
Muscular Dystrophy
group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue. There is no cure, and most individuals die before the age of 20 years. Duchenne's dystrophy is the most common form
Myasthenia Gravis
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue.
Osteoporosis
decrease in bone density and an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle
and increasing the risk of fractures.
Sprain
trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability.
Strain
trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch
Torticollis
spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck that
may be congenial or acquired; wryneck.
blephar/o
eyelid
choroid/o
choroids, Provides blood supply for the entire eye.
corne/o, kerat/o
cornea, Permits light into the eye; transparent.
dacry/o
tear, lacrimal sac
irid/o
iris, Colored muscular layer that surrounds the pupil.
ocul/o, ophthalm/o
eye
retin/o
retina, Composed of nerve endings; responsible for the receptionand transmission of light impulses.
myring/o, tympan/o
tympanic membrane, Vibrates when struck with sound. aka ear drum.
ot/o
ear
salping/o
eustachian tube or fallopian tube
Equalizes air pressure in the middle ear with outside
atmosphere.
-opia
vision
amblyopia
dullness of vision: ambly - dull, opia - vision
nyctalopia
night blindness: nycto - night, darkness, alo - blind
emmetropia
normal, perfect vision
myopia
nearsightedness
hyperopia
farsightedness (presbyopia)
anisocoria
pronounced: an/eye/so/core/ē/a
aniso-unequal, cor/o-pupil, ia -condition
phac/o
combining form for lens (phacolysis treatment for
phacosclerosis)
xenophthalmia
inflamed eye condition caused by foreign material
xen/o - foreign, strange
don't confude with : xero - dry, and xantho - yellow
cry/o
cold
oculus dexter
right eye
oculus sinister
left eye
cor/o, core/o, pupill/o
pupil
phot/o
light
ton/o
tension, pressure
Anacusis
without/hearing; total deafness
Tinnitus
Ringing buzzing, or roaring sound in the ears.
Vertigo
sensation of moving around in space. A feeling of spinning or dizziness. Usually a result of
inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium. (Vestibular portion and semicircular canals).