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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Adrenal cortex-promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Ovaries-in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen. Testes-in males, stimulates sperm production
Growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin
Bones, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues-stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Ovaries-in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone. Testes-in males, promotes secretion of testosterone
Uterus-stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor. Breast-promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands
Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone. Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine
Increases energy production from all food types. Increases rate of protein synthesis
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Bones-increases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. Kidneys-increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion. Small intestine-increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
Body cells-promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and help depress inflamamatory and immune responses
Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldersterone)
Kidneys-increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys
Sex hormones (any of the androgens, estrogens, or related steroid hormones) produced by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortices
In females, possibly responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (Otherwise, effects in adults are insignificant.)
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Sympathetic nervous system target organs-hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sympathomimetic), increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
Liver and blood-increases blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in liver (glycogenolysis) and conversion of other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood; converts glycogen to glucose
Tissue cells-lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells; converts glucose to glycogen
Open, compound fracture
bone pierces the skin and causes extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels
Carpal Tunnel syndrome
pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within
the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which flexor tendons and the median nerve pass).
grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction.
hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis characterized by excessive uric acid
in the blood and around the joints.
herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposis (center gelatinous material within an
intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae. Occurs most often in the lumbar region.
increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic section of the vertebral column; hunchback or humpback
group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue. There is no cure, and most individuals die before the age of 20 years. Duchenne's dystrophy is the most common form
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue.
decrease in bone density and an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle
and increasing the risk of fractures.
trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability.
spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck that
may be congenial or acquired; wryneck.
retina, Composed of nerve endings; responsible for the receptionand transmission of light impulses.
eustachian tube or fallopian tube
Equalizes air pressure in the middle ear with outside
inflamed eye condition caused by foreign material
xen/o - foreign, strange
don't confude with : xero - dry, and xantho - yellow
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