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UCBX Human Nutrition Quiz 4
Chapter 6 - Lipids, PUFAs, metabolic syndrome, and CAD
Terms in this set (57)
[A] The 3 types of lipids are: ______________(stored in adipose tissue, fats and oils in food), _______________(cell walls in plants/animals | Soluble in fat and water
), and _____________ (cholesterol).
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols
[A] An example of short-chained fatty acids (FAs) is _________ (2-4 carbons). Medium-chained __________ (6-10 carbons). Long-chained ___________ (12 or more carbons).
Butter, goat milk, palm oil/animal fat
[A] ____________ long-chain FAs are found in dairy fat, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil and other vegetable oils.
_________________ long-chain fats include oleic acid, palmitoleic acid and nervonic acid -- fats found in most animal and vegetable oils, but particularly macadamia, olive, canola and safflower oil.
__________________ long-chain fats include linoleic acid (O6), alpha-linolenic acid (O3), arachidonic acid (O6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (O3).
Saturated, Monounsaturated, Polyunsaturated
[A] Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated FAs stay _________ at room temp.
[A] cis formation of FAs are found in __________ and are bent, while trans FAs tend to be more _______ and straight, acting like saturated fat.
[A] Whole milk has __% fat. __% milk has 1/3 of its fat removed. __% milk has 2/3 of its fat removed.
3, 2, 1
The RDA (recommended daily allowance) for trans fat it _____. However the recommended allowance for consumption of saturated fat is less than __% of _________________.
zero, 10, daily caloric intake
A diet high in ____________ causes hypertriglyceridemia and a diet high in _________ causes hyperlipidemia.
[A] When the liver makes too much cholesterol, you get _____________________.
[A] ______________ is caused by the types of food (FAs) consumed. It can also cause diabetes and heart diseases.
A very helpful blood marker for measuring the degree of general inflammation in the body is blood plasma ____________________. If you have an infection or a fever, you may have this.
[A] Since DHA is the _____________ substrate for enzymes that make prostaglandins (which are Pro-Inflammatory), it is the best for you as DHA is going to make the ________ amount of pro-inflammatory substances.
[A] Omega 3 & 6 FAs are triglycerides.
Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is an omega- __ fatty acid. Decosahexanoic acid (DHA) is an omega- __. They are both ____________ fatty acids.
3, 3, essential / poly-unsaturated
The best sources of Omega-3 fatty acids are (1)_________ and (2)________. These fats are essential because (3)___________________________________. They have a lot of health benefits but the only established benefits that are scientifically agreed upon are the (4)_______________ benefits.
(3) the body cannot make double carbon chained FAs below 9
[A] Omega-3 Fatty acids are essential for (1)____________________, (2)___________, development of (3)______________ used to treat dementia & important to learning and memory, the formation of cell-membranes, and repair of injury in the (4)_____ & (5)__________.
(1) brain function & repair
(2) neural growth
[A] O3 FAs are less inflammatory and convert to eicosanoids ________ than O6 FAs.
[A] O3 & O6 FAs compete for the same __________ to be transformed into eicosanoids. Their _______ in our body directly affects which eicosanoids are produced and at what rate they are produced.
[A] LOX enzymes prefer O6 FAs when making Leukotrienes, ____-inflammatory regulatory molecules. So if O3 FAs are in abundance, they'll compete, and Leukotrienes will be made at a ________ rate.
[A] ____________ function as powerful regulatory molecules with many antagonistic effects and complex pathways. (made by oxidation of 20-carbon FAs)
[A] Four families of eicosanoids are:
The 2 families of enzymes that make Eicosanoids are ____ (Lipoxygenase) and ____ (Cycloxygenase) enzymes. They use Omega- __ and Omega- __ fatty acids as their substrates.
Lox, Cox, 3, 6
Prostaglandins, Prostacyclins, and Thromboxanes
[A] ________ (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, etc.) inhibit some COX enzymes.
[A] ALA =
Alpha linolenic acid
main substrate for eicosanoid prod
[A] EPA =
main substrate for eicosanoid prod
precursor for protaglandin-3, thromboxane-3, leukotriene-5 eicosanoids
[A] DHA =
BEST out of the 3 for the body
Pri structural component of the brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles, and retina
[A] The body converts ALA to __________, _________ to _________.
EPA, EPA, DHA
[A] O3 FAs _________ your blood. Thus it is best to take no more than ____g/day of combined EPA & DHA.
[A] Health benefits of O3 FAs include:
(1) lower blood triglycerides
(2) lower BP & Heart rate
(3) lower risk of Myocardial Infarction
[A] Potential risks of overconsumption of O3 FAs are:
(1) bleeding (gums, internally)
(2) increased LDL
(3) Higher risk of hemorrhagic strokes
(4) Lower glycemic control in diabetics
[A] 2 pathways that make O3 & O6 in the body are:
EPA pathway (O3)
Arachidonic acid pathway (O6)
[A] Phospholipids are __________, keeping fat suspended in water. They also make up ___________ which are double layer of phospholipids, _______ fatty acids temporarily, and play an important role in nerve cells.
emulsifiers, cell membrane, store
[A] In the body, ___________ (emulsifiers) are usually phospholipids, composed of phosphoric acid with ___________ (Phosphatidylcholines -PC) , glycerol or triglyceride.
[A] Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup.
- major component of biological membranes
- easily obtained from egg yolk or soybeans
- also a member of the lecithin group occurring in animal and plant tissues.
[A] In food, emulsifiers are a blend of phospholipids with different ___________-containing components.
The 2 sources of cholesterol in our bodies are the _______ and _______.
[A] (1)___________ is the mother of all sterols, which are (2)__ carbon ring structures that contain no (3)______________.
(3) Fatty Acids
[A] 4 hormones made from sterols are (1)___________, (2)__________, (3)__________, (4)___________.
Sterols are also precursors to (5)____________, (6)______________________, and bile salts.
(5) Vit D
(6) steroid hormones
[A] Lipid Digestion and Absorption:
Digestion of triglycerides and phospholipids
In the mouth includes chewing and _________________ start digestion.
In the stomach, triglycerides broken down to _______________ and free fatty acids.
In the Small intestine, they are emulsified by phospholipids, and digested by __________________.
[A] About __% of dietary cholesterol is absorbed
[A] Chylomicrons are made in the _________________ cells (that line the intestines). It is the first product that the body makes our of the fats absorbed.
The first blood vessel to see it is the ___________________.
The first organ to see it is the ______________.
hepatic portal vein
[A] ______________ have the largest amount of triglycerides, followed by VLDL, IDL, LDL & HDL.
[A] The liver repackages the fats into ________, ________, _______, and _______.
VLDL - Very-low-density lipoproteins (softball)
IDL - Intermediate-density lipoproteins (baseball)
LDL - Low-density lipoproteins (golf ball)
HDL - High-density lipoproteins (ball bearing)
Beach ball > softball > baseball > golf ball > ball bearing
[A] The purpose of VLDL is ____________________________.
to deliver triglycerides to tissues
[A] The purpose of LDL is ____________________________.
to deliver cholesterol to tissues
[A] The purpose of HDL is ____________________________.
to pick up cholesterol from damaged tissues & bring it back to the liver.
[A] The purpose of IDL is ____________________________.
is to pick up the left over VLDL once tissues are done with it and bring it back to the liver.
The lipoprotein that is mostly triglycerides and delivers it to tissues is the _____. The one with the highest concentration of cholesterol is ____.
Lipoproteins have a central core of (1)____________ and (2)__________ with a shell made of (3)________ and (4)_____________.
[A] ___________________ is the major enzyme that breaks down lipoproteins.
______ has higher protein content than all other lipoproteins.
One of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome is having a low ____.
[A] Increased LDL causes ______________, which is the injury to endothelial cells lining the blood vessels, hardening and narrowing the arteries. causes include _________________________________.
high blood cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, smoking
[A] Saturated fats block _____ receptors (on the lining) by raising blood LDL.
[A] The recommended intake of lipids:
Total fat: ________% of calories
Less than ___% of calories from saturated fat
Less than _____ mg per day of cholesterol
[A] __________ is sucrose bombarded with FAs. It is ____________, produces no calories, and reduces absorption of fat-soluble ____________.
the organ that stores and concentrates bile. When it receives the signal that fat is present in the duodenum , the gallbladder contracts and squirts bile through the bile duct into the duodenum
How many calories per gram of CHO?
What happens if you consume too much vitamin C?
Incidental food additives sometimes find their way into foods, and adverse effects are common
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