Physical science test: states of matter

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Kinetic theory
Explanation of how particles in gases behave
Thermal energy
Total energy of a materials particles. It includes both the kinetic energy and potential energy of every particle
Temperature
The average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a substance
Four states of matter
Solid, liquid, gas and plasma
Solid
- has a definite shape and definite volume
- particles are closely packed together
- particles have very little kinetic energy so they are on able to overcome their attraction to each other
Liquid
- has no definite shape but has a definite volume
- particles have more kinetic energy than a solid so the particles are further apart but cannot completely overcome the force of attraction
- particles cling together and slide past each other or flow
Gas
- has no definite shape and no definite volume
- has enough kinetic energy to overcome the forces of attraction
- The particles spread out to fill whatever container they are and and can be compressed
Plasma
- matter that has enough energy to overcome the attractive forces between particles and also the attractive forces within the atom
- occurs at very high temperatures
- Atoms hit each other with so much force electrons are stripped off the atom
Melting point
Temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
Freezing point
Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid
Vaporization
When particles move fast enough to escape the attractive forces of other particles and change into gas
Heat of fusion
Energy required to change a substance from a solid to liquid at it's melting point
Evaporation
Occurs at the surface of a liquid and can occur at nearly any temperature
Boiling
Occurs throughout a liquid at a specific temperature
Boiling point
Temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
Heat of vaporization
Amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas
Condensation
Gas changing to a liquid
Sublimation
Process of a solid changes directly to a gas without forming a liquid
Depostition
When a gas changes directly into a solid and bypasses the liquid stage
Thermal expansion
An increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased
Amorphous solid
Solids that lack a Crystaline structure and turns into a liquid over a temperature range, not a specific temperature
Liquid crystal
Matter that has properties between the liquid and solid crystal state
Fluid
Any liquid or gas
Buoyancy
Ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it
Buoyant force
Force exerted upward by the fluid
Archimedes' principle
The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Pascal's principle
Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid equally in all directions
Pressure
Force exerted per-unit area
Bernoulli's principle
Fluid velocity increases when the flow of an fluid is restricted
Viscosity
Resistance of a fluid to flowing
Gay-Lussac's law
As temperature increases, pressure increases of a fixed volume
Gas law
Shows the relationship between the pressure, volume and temperature of gases
Boyle's law
If you decrease the volume of a container of gas and hold the temperature constant, the pressure from the gas will increase. The reverse is also true
Charles' law
The volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature as long as the pressure of the gas does not change. The reverse is also true
4 basic assumptions of the kinetic theory
1. All matter is composed of tiny particles- atoms, molecules and ions
2. particles are in constant random motion
3. The particles collide with each other and with the walls of any container in which they are held
4. The amount of energy that the particles lose from these collisions are negligible
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