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Biology Final Ch. 30, 31, 32

Biology 2012 Cranbrook Kingswood Mr. Gump Study Guide Chapters 30-32
STUDY
PLAY
Apical Meristem
at the tips of the stems, how plants grow in height
Collenchymas
a tissue that is composed of cells that are more specialized than those of parenchyma tissue (provide support for the plant and are grouped in strands)
Companion Cell
know what it does in the pressure-flow hypothesis
Cork
dead cells on the outside of trees (replace epidermis in woody plants)
Cork Cambium
lateral meristems responsible for secondary growth in roots and stems
Cuticle
a waterproof, waxy coating on the leaf
Dermal Tissue System
outside covering of plants
Dicots
two cotyledons, petals are in multiples of four/five, taproot, net venation
Epidermis
outermost layers of cells on a plant
Ground Tissue System
all three types of plant cells: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
Intercalary Meristem
increases the length between nodes (i.e. grass)
Lateral Meristem
increases diameter of plant
Meristem
regions in plants where cells continuously divide (growing)
Monocots
have one cotyledon, petals are in multiples of 3, have fibrous root systems/parallel veins
Parenchyma
Photosynthesis, healing, storing nutrients
Primary Growth
vertical growth in plants (apical meristem)
Sclerenchyma
hard or woody cells that help support plant
Secondary Growth
horizontal growth in plants (lateral meristem)
Vascular Cambium
tissues that support substances
Vascular Tissue System
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body
Adventitious Root
roots originate from stems branches and leaves
Cortex
between epidermis and vascular tissues (stems and roots)
Endodermis
the intermost layer of the cortex
Fibrous Root System
momocot (i.e. grass)
Macronutrients
large nutrient
Micronutrient
small nutrient
Pericycle
outermost part of the stele of plants (diagram)
Root Cap
protects roots underground
Root Hair
increase surface area for absorption
Taproot
dicots, single large root (ex. carrot)
Annual Ring
combo of spring (more water) and summer (less water) wood
Bark
protective waterproof coating of the tree
Bud
new growth
Bud Scale
added protection for the apical meristem
Cohesion-Tension Theory
what allows water to climb up a stem
Heartwood
dark center circle in the middle of a tree
Internode
distance from one node to another
Node
hold buds (which grow)
Pith
stores and transports nutrients
Pressure-Flow Hypothesis
active transport process of moving things through plants (page 612)
Sapwood
part of living wood where sap flows
Sink
site where sugars are actively transported into the phloem
Source
site where sugars are actively transported out of the phloem
Springwood
lighter color wood that shows more growth in the tree because it generally gets more water that time of the year
Summerwood
darker wood showing summer growth of the plant because it generally gets less water that time of the year hotter)
Translocation
movement of carbs throughout the plant
Transpiration
the process in which water leaves the leafs
Wood
main substance of trunks or branches
Blade
a type of plant leaf
Compound Leaf
a leaf with more than one leaflet
Guard Cell
protect meristem
Leaflet
branches off the plant
Mesophyll
photosynthetic layer part of the leaf
Net Venation
crazy veins in dicots
Palisade Mesophyll
site of most photosynthesis
Parallel
orderly veins in monocots
Venation
the order of veins in a plant
Petiole
stalk that attaches to the leaf blade
Simple Leaf
consists of only one leaf
Spongy Mesophyll
leaf tissue consisting of loosely arranged chloroplast-bearing cells
Tendril
leaf stem or petiole with a threadlike shape
Vein
to carry water or nutrients throughout a plant
Anther
site of pollen grain production (male)
Carpel
the female reproductive structures
Double Fertilization
pollen grain lands on stigma. Grain contains two nuclei: tube and generative. The grain germinates the stigma and the tube nuclei forms a pollen tube that moves down the style around the ovary to the ovule. Generative forms two haploid sperm cells. One sperm cell fuses with egg, making zygote, other fuses with two polar nuclei, making endosperm (nutrients for zygote/embryo, as it grows)
Embryo Sac
supplies nutrients to zygote
Filament
a stalk-like structure that supports an anther
Ovary
the enlarged base of a pistil
Petal
protection for plant, and attraction (angiosperms)
Pistil
one or more carpel fused together
Style
usually stalk-like structure that arises from the ovary
Cone
reproductive structure (hard scales), gymnosperm
Cotyledon
seed leaf in a plants embryo
Deciduous
trees that lose their leaves at the end of growing season
Ovary
female part of the flower where the egg is
Rhizome
underground stem found in most ferns
Seedling
young plant developed from embryo