Upgrade to remove ads
The Science of Nutrition - Chapter 7
Terms in this set (48)
The sum of all the chemical and physical changes that occur in body tissues.
A special instrument in which food can be burned and the amount of heat that is released can be measured; this process demonstrates the energy (caloric) content of the food.
The process of making new molecules from smaller ones.
The breakdown or degradation of larger molecules to smaller molecules.
Adenosine triphosphate; a high-energy compound made up of the purine adenine, the simple sugar ribose, and three phosphate units; it is used by cells as a source of metabolic energy.
Adenosine diphosphate; a metabolic intermediate that results from the removal of one phosphate group from ATP.
Adenosine monophosphate; a low-energy compound that results from the removal of two phosphate groups from ATP.
An anabolic process by which smaller, chemically simple compounds are joined with the removal of water.
A catabolic process by which a large, chemically complex compound is broken apart with the addition of water.
The addition of one or more phosphate groups to a chemical compound.
Reactions in which electrons are lost by one compound (it is oxidized) and simultaneously gained by another compound (it is reduced).
Flavin adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme derived from the B-vitamin riboflavin; it readily accepts electrons (hydrogen) from various donors.
The nonprotein component of enzymes; many coenzymes are B-vitamins.
A small, chemically simple organic or inorganic substance that is required for enzyme activity; trace minerals such as iron, zinc, and copper function as cofactors.
An enzyme that adds a phosphate group to a molecule of glucose.
A sequence of chemical reactions that converts glucose to pyruvate.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme form of the B-vitamin niacin; it readily accepts electrons (hydrogen) from various donors.
A three-carbon compound produced from pyruvate in oxygen-deprived conditions.
Coenzyme A is derived from the B-vitamin pantothenic acid; it readily reacts with two-carbon acetate to form the metabolic intermediate acetyl CoA.
A repetitive series of eight metabolic reactions, located in the cell mitochondria, that metabolizes acetyl CoA for the production of carbon dioxide, high-energy GTP, and reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH₂
Electron Transport Chain
A series of metabolic reactions that transports electrons from NADH or FADH₂through a series of carries, resulting in ATP production.
The enzyme-driven catabolism of triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol.
The enzyme that breaks down the triglycerides on chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), and other lipoproteins.
The enzyme that breaks down the triglycerides stored in adipose tissue.
A serum protein, made in the liver, that transports free fatty acids from one body tissue to another.
Also known as fatty acid oxidation; it is a series of metabolic reactions that oxidizes free fatty acids, leading to the end products of water, carbon dioxide, and ATP.
A small organic compound that transports free fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria for oxidation.
Three- and four-carbon compounds (acetoacetate, acetone, and beta- or 3-hydroxybutyrate) derived when acetyl CoA levels becom elevated.
Elevated serum levels of ketone bodies.
A form of metabolic acidosis caused by elevated serum levels of ketone bodies.
The breakdown of dietary proteins into single amino acids or small peptides that are absorbed by the body.
The removal of an amine group from an amino acid.
The unique "side group" that remains after deamination of an amino acid, also referred to as a keto acid.
A highly toxic compound released during the deamination of amino acids.
The chemical structure that remains after the deamination of an amino acid.
Glucogenic Amino Acid
An amino acid that can be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis.
Ketogenic Amino Acid
An amino acid that can be converted to acetyl CoA for the synthesis of free fatty acids.
Alcohol dehydrogenase; an enzyme that converts ethanol to acetaldehyde in the first step of alcohol oxidation.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase; an enzyme that oxidizes acetaldehyde to acetate.
Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system; a liver enzyme system that oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde; its activity predominates at higher levels of alcohol intake.
The continuous oxidation of a compound, such as a lipid, resulting in the formation of a peroxide.
The synthesis of glucose form noncarbohydrate precursors such as glucogenic amino acids and glycerol.
The synthesis of free fatty acids from nonlipid precurses such as ketogenic amino acids or ethanol.
De Novo Synthesis
The process of synthesizing a compound "from scratch."
A hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that increases cell uptake of glucose and amino acids.
A hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the release of glucose into the bloodstream.
A hormone produced mainly by the adrenal medulla that stimulates the release of glucose from liver glycogen and the release of free fatty acids from stored triglycerides.
A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that increases rates of gluconeogenesis and lipolysis.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Biochem Exam 2 Review Questions
Science Chapter 4
Nutritional Science Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
spn 2220 test 1
Spanish Unit 1
SPN 2220 Exam 1
Nutrition Unit 5