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51 terms

World History Exam WWI

STUDY
PLAY
militarism
massive build up of military
alliances
teaming up with another country for protection ex. Triple Entente
imperialism
making colonies for goods and to create an empire ex. Britain and India, France and N. Africa
nationalism
pride in a country with a common culture
Triple Alliance
alliance between Germany, A-H, and Russia before WWI
Triple Entente
alliance between France, GB, and Russia before WWI
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of A-H, shot in Sarajevo in 1914 by Gavrilo Princeps
Gavrilo Princip
Serbian who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
von Schliefen Plan
German plan to invade France through Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg
neutral
one who does not side with any party in a war
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire in WWI
Allied Powers
France, GB, Russia, later US and Japan in WWI
Battle of the Frontiers
early battle, resulted in German victory (WWI battle)
Battle of Tannenberg
Russia attacked Germany on Eastern front, German victory, but distracted Germany from advancing on Paris (WWI battle)
Battle of the Marne
Allies drove the Germans back, stalemate leads to beginning of trench warfare (WWI battle)
Western Front
region in N. France where trench warfare was fought between France and German (WWI)
trench warfare
fighting from trenches in the ground, used before but never at the scale of WWI
"over the top"
men were ordered through no man's land to attack opposite trench, faced barbed wire, machine guns, and almost certain death
no man's land
region between two opposing trenches, filled with barbed wire, very dangerous
total war
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
propaganda
information designed to influence opinion ex. newspaper, pamphlet, poster, etc
Battle of Verdun
resulted in stalemate, hundreds of thousands of casualties for each side, no territorial gain for anyone (WWI battle)
genocide
deliberate destruction of a racial/political/cultural group ex. the Holocaust
Bolsheviks
Marxist group that started revolution in Russia, led by Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks, leader of the Russian Revolution
Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; made bad military decisions, overthrown
Czarina Alexandra
wife of Nicholas II, left in control of government when husband went to war
Grigory Rasputin
advisor to Czarina Alexandra, self-proclaimed holy man and healer, corrupt and immoral
Aleksandr Kerensky
led Russia's provisional government when monarchy was overthrown
Marxism-Leninism
variation of communism based on the ideas of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin
Red Guards
armed Bolshevik factory workers, attacked government in the October Revolution
October Revolution
2nd revolution, Bolsheviks took over provisional government, Lenin became ruler
Leon Trotsky
negotiated Russia out of World War I
Red Army
the Soviet Army during the Russian Civil War, fought against the White Army
New Economic Policy
allowed some capitalism in the Russian communist economy
Soviet Union
created in 1922 by Red Army
Woodrow Wilson
led US during WWI, presented 14 points at Paris Peace Conference
unrestricted submarine warfare
a German policy which stated that their U-boats would sink any ship in the British waters
U-boats
German submarines used in World War I
Lusitania
US passenger ships sunk by U-boats, killed 1200 Americans, one cause for US to enter WWI
Zimmerman Note
secret telegram from German politician Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico, proposing war against US for return of Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico
2nd Battle of the Marne
Allied stop German offensive, shift in power to Allies, territory gain (WWI battle)
Hindenburg Line
Allies broke through this German line to end fighting (WWI)
armistice
truce between nations to end fighting
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's ideas for world peace, presented at Paris Peace Conference, wanted to reduce weapons, free choice of government, and League of Nations
Georges Clemenceau
represented France at Treaty of Versailles, wanted harsh punishment for Germany to weaken them beyond repair
David Lloyd George
represented GB at Treaty of Versailles, wanted to punish German without weakening, wanted to end communism
Vittorio Orlando
represented Italy at Treaty of Versailles, wanted more territory for Italy but ignored by other nations
Treaty of Versailles
peace treaty to end WWI, resulted in harsh punishment for Germany (reparations), created League of Nations (US and Germany were excluded)
mandates
territory ruled by another nation (became colonies)
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised Jewish state in Palestine