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massive build up of military


teaming up with another country for protection ex. Triple Entente


making colonies for goods and to create an empire ex. Britain and India, France and N. Africa


pride in a country with a common culture

Triple Alliance

alliance between Germany, A-H, and Russia before WWI

Triple Entente

alliance between France, GB, and Russia before WWI

Franz Ferdinand

archduke of A-H, shot in Sarajevo in 1914 by Gavrilo Princeps

Gavrilo Princip

Serbian who assassinated Franz Ferdinand

von Schliefen Plan

German plan to invade France through Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg


one who does not side with any party in a war

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire in WWI

Allied Powers

France, GB, Russia, later US and Japan in WWI

Battle of the Frontiers

early battle, resulted in German victory (WWI battle)

Battle of Tannenberg

Russia attacked Germany on Eastern front, German victory, but distracted Germany from advancing on Paris (WWI battle)

Battle of the Marne

Allies drove the Germans back, stalemate leads to beginning of trench warfare (WWI battle)

Western Front

region in N. France where trench warfare was fought between France and German (WWI)

trench warfare

fighting from trenches in the ground, used before but never at the scale of WWI

"over the top"

men were ordered through no man's land to attack opposite trench, faced barbed wire, machine guns, and almost certain death

no man's land

region between two opposing trenches, filled with barbed wire, very dangerous

total war

the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort


information designed to influence opinion ex. newspaper, pamphlet, poster, etc

Battle of Verdun

resulted in stalemate, hundreds of thousands of casualties for each side, no territorial gain for anyone (WWI battle)


deliberate destruction of a racial/political/cultural group ex. the Holocaust


Marxist group that started revolution in Russia, led by Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks, leader of the Russian Revolution

Czar Nicholas II

Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; made bad military decisions, overthrown

Czarina Alexandra

wife of Nicholas II, left in control of government when husband went to war

Grigory Rasputin

advisor to Czarina Alexandra, self-proclaimed holy man and healer, corrupt and immoral

Aleksandr Kerensky

led Russia's provisional government when monarchy was overthrown


variation of communism based on the ideas of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin

Red Guards

armed Bolshevik factory workers, attacked government in the October Revolution

October Revolution

2nd revolution, Bolsheviks took over provisional government, Lenin became ruler

Leon Trotsky

negotiated Russia out of World War I

Red Army

the Soviet Army during the Russian Civil War, fought against the White Army

New Economic Policy

allowed some capitalism in the Russian communist economy

Soviet Union

created in 1922 by Red Army

Woodrow Wilson

led US during WWI, presented 14 points at Paris Peace Conference

unrestricted submarine warfare

a German policy which stated that their U-boats would sink any ship in the British waters


German submarines used in World War I


US passenger ships sunk by U-boats, killed 1200 Americans, one cause for US to enter WWI

Zimmerman Note

secret telegram from German politician Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico, proposing war against US for return of Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico

2nd Battle of the Marne

Allied stop German offensive, shift in power to Allies, territory gain (WWI battle)

Hindenburg Line

Allies broke through this German line to end fighting (WWI)


truce between nations to end fighting

Fourteen Points

Woodrow Wilson's ideas for world peace, presented at Paris Peace Conference, wanted to reduce weapons, free choice of government, and League of Nations

Georges Clemenceau

represented France at Treaty of Versailles, wanted harsh punishment for Germany to weaken them beyond repair

David Lloyd George

represented GB at Treaty of Versailles, wanted to punish German without weakening, wanted to end communism

Vittorio Orlando

represented Italy at Treaty of Versailles, wanted more territory for Italy but ignored by other nations

Treaty of Versailles

peace treaty to end WWI, resulted in harsh punishment for Germany (reparations), created League of Nations (US and Germany were excluded)


territory ruled by another nation (became colonies)

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised Jewish state in Palestine

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