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Why do some mutations not affect the phenotype

The mutation can occur in a stretch of DNA with no function. It is only a problem if it results in a different amino acid joining the protein.
Sometimes mutations have no effect because each amino acid has a few different sequences of bases: the correct amino acid might still join the chain.

Define the term 'sex-linkage'

A term referring to the phenotypic expressions of alleles on sex chromosomes.

How are karyotype pairs matched?

Banding pattern
Centromere position


The speed of an object and its direction of motion. SPEED AND DIRECTION

Newton's First Law

Every object continues in its state of rest or movement unless a force acts upon it.

Newtons Conversion

1kg is about 10 kilograms (or 9.8N)

Newton's Second Law

The acceleration if an object is proportionate to the net force acting on the object. The greater the mass the greater the force for the acceleration.
Acceleration= net force/mass


When surfaces slide over one another and there are irregularities in the surface.

Newton's Third Law

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction on the first.

Average Speed

total distance covered
time interval


Acceleration = change in velocity/time interval

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