40 terms


Essential amino acid
normally first limiting so quoted in feed levels
Methionine and cystine
essential amino acids
contain sulphur
methionine can be converted to cystine but not visa versa
essential amino acid
L isomer usually calculated as D isomer only 60% utilised
converted to nicotinic acid
Essential amino acid
L isomer only in pig
Essential amino acid
L isomer only
Protease inhibitors
Anti nutrient factor found in soya, cereals, potatoes, beans and peanuts
Permanently bind to enzymes
Anti trypsin and anti chymotrypsin in soya
low growth, amino acid uptake, high endogenous loss
pancreatic hypertrophy in chicks
process by heat, germination, fermentation or chemically
Haemoglutins or lectins
Anti nutrient factors found in caster beans (ricin), kidney beans (phytohaemagglutinin) and soya
cause blood to glutinate so very toxic
process by soaking prior to cooking or steaming
Goitrogens- thioglucosides
Anti nutrient factors found in cabbage, turnips, kale and rapeseed
<5% for poultry, <10% in pigs, up to 10% cattle
process with heat and solvent
Anti nutrient factor in cassava, maize, peas and beans
very toxin, converted to hydrogen cyanide in gut
Anti nutrient factor in leaves
decr food intake, FCR and reduce protein digestibility by binding- use in ruminants, bind to CHOs decr digestibility, bind to gut enzymes, bid to dietary iron, cause crypt hyperplasia
Blocked by polyethylene glycol
Anti nutrient factor in forages, potatoes, grains
N heterocyclic ring
Bitter taste, reduce palatability
Anti nutrient factors- metabolites of fungi
Alfatoxins- maize, rice, nuts. Toxic for pigs and dogs
Fusarium species- wheat, barley, oats
Acremonium loliae- in growing grass. Ryegrass staggers in ruminants
Prevent by drying, anaerobic storage and chemical preservatives
Detox chemically or physically but expensive
Linoleic acid
Fatty acid 18:2 w6
Arachidonic acid
Fatty acid 20:4 w6
Linolenic acid
Fatty acid 18:3 w3
Simple fats
triacylglycerols, mono and diacylglycerols less frequent
low molecular weight- oil at room temp
high molecular weight- solid at room temp
compound glycerol based lipid
glycerol+ fatty acids+ one or 2 sugar residues
mono or di galactosylglyceride
Fat type in grasses and clovers
compound glycerol based lipid
glycerol+ 2 fatty acids+ phosphoric acid
Esterified by choline- lecithin
esterified by ethanolamine- cephelin
- form micelles, emulsify fats, surface active so membranes
non glycerol based lipid
based on sphingosine instead
esterified to phosphoric acid the by choline or ethonolamine
- surface active, membrane component esp. nervous tissue
non glycerol based lipid
based on sphingosine
terminal hydroxyl group linked to galactose or glucose
membrane of nervous tissue
simple, non glycerol based lipids
completely indigestible- resistant to hydrolysis
fatty acid linked to high molecular weight alcohol
protective role- waterproofing and thermoregulation
non glycerol based lipids
based on cyclopentane ring, biologically important
-cholesterol from diet and synthesised
-7 dehydrocholesterol, vit D3 precursor
-Ergosterol, found in bacteria and plants, Vit D2 precursor
-Bile acids, emulsify fats
-steroid hormones eg oe, testosterone, cortisol etc
non glycerol based lipids
made up from isoprene units linking in chains or rings
in plants with strong odours or flavours
component of chlorophyll, carotenoids, Vits A, E and K
non glycerol based lipids
polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids, cyclic at C8 and 12
include prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins
sources: Animal>vegetable, salt
Function: ECF cation, osmotic balance, resting potential
Deficiency: due to imbalance in mineral homeostasis
rare- seen in rapidly growing animals on cereal, high yielding diry cows, horses at high exercise
Toxicity- post weaned pigs
High NA in whey, not yet learnt to use nipple drinkers, poor kidney function
sources: milk, fress grass, fish, bone, kale
Function: bone, muscle contraction
Deficiency: chronic- osteopososis, rickets, decr eggs layers, big heads horses
Acute- milk fever, weakness, tremors, paralysis
sources: milk, fish, soya, cereals. Grass and forages poor
mineral sources mono and di Ca phosphate, Na monophos
Function: bone, membrane phospholipids, nucleic acid
Deficiency: common, low metabolism, growth, lactation and appetite. Infertility, poor bone and tooth development, osteoporosis
Phytates and oxalates
bind to Ca to make insoluble. Also affect P absorption. not a problem in ruminants as destroyed by rumen but leads to bran disease in horses.
Source: most diets adequate, bran good. Mineral form Mg oxide, magnesite. Milk, straw, spring and winter grass poor
Availability: decr by N and K fertilizers, cold incr shivering- decr Mg, bad weather stops grazing- low intake
Function: enzymes involved in energy metabolism, NMJ inhibitory fb, bone
Deficiency: chronic- low appetite, growth and condition, stiffness
Acute- nervous staggers, convulsions and rapid death (grass staggers)
Prevent w/ licks, bolus, add to water or feed. treat w/ subcut injection
Trace elements
Source: pasture. milk absolutely deficient
Availability: decr by molybdenum and sulphur
Function: Hb synthesis, melanin synth, formation of di-sulphide links in wool and hair, oseoblast synth, ETC enzymes, myelination
Deficiency: Cattle- heart failure, low appetite, growth, fertility, anaemia, rings around eyes. Teart= high molybdenum
Sheep- poor condition, steely wool, swayback and incoordination in lambs
Toxicity- sheep limited ability to excrete. haemolysis of kidney and liver damage- sudden death
Trace element
Source: in vit B12- synth by microflora in rumen/ hindgut
Requirement: 0.1 mg/kg in ruminant
Deficiency: severe wasting and no appetite
Prevention- rumen bolus
Trace element
Requirement 0.5 mg/kg DM
Function: thyroid hormone synthesis
Deficiency- decr metabolic rate, reproductive failure, weak and hairless lambs/ calves, goitre
Diagnosis: blood/milk levels
trace element
requirement: 30-70 mg/kg although least limiting of all trace elements. Most feeds adequate
Deficiency: abnormal bone growth, infertility in ruminants, perosis- slipped tendon, uncommon now
Trace element
Source: ubiquitous
Function: protein synthesis enzymes in skin and hair
deficiency: parakeratosis- dry skin, hair loss, poor healing, poor growth and egg production in poultry. rare in ruminants and pigs
Requirements: v. low, 0.1 mg/kg
Function: anti oxidant with vit E- glutathione peroxide precursor
Deficiency: primary- leached soils, secondary- in high poly unsaturated fat diets
paralytic myoglobinemia in unfit horses that are excessively worked
white muscle disease in cattle- weakness and tremor
stiff lamb disease in sheep
Mulberry heart disease, hapatosis dietica in pigs
Toxicity: acute- blind staggers, chronic- stiffness and lameness
Vitamin A
aka retinol
Fat soluble, readily oxidised
Sources: liver, egg yolk, milk fat. Provitamins- carotenoids
Function: retinal in eye, formation of mucopolysaccherides, maintenance of epithelium for spermatogenesis, osteoblast activity
Deficiency: night blindness, cattle- rough hair and skin, watery eyes, infertility and abortion, sheep- night blindness, weak/ dead lambs, pigs- blind, deformed litters, Poultry- low growth and egg production
Vitamin D
ergocalciferol- D2, cholecalceferol- D3
fat soluble
Sources: colostrum, some fish, sun dried roughages. Provitamins- ergosterol in plants, 7 dehydrocholesterol + UV
Function: acts as steroid hormone to regulate DNA transcription of calcium binding proteins
Deficiency: disturbed Ca and P metabolism, ruminants- swollen knees and hocks, arched backs. Pigs- enlarged joints, broken bones, paralysis, supplemented in feed. Poultry- soft bones and beak, bowed legs, low egg production, supplemented
Vitamin E
a, B, Y and delta tocopherols and tocotrienols
fat soluble
Sources: grass>silage>hay, cereal, low in animals products
Function: anti oxidant function- glutathione peroxide, precursor for prostaglandins, inhibits platelet aggregation, phagocytosis
Deficiency: ruminants- muscular dystrophy in calves, peroxidation in cardiac muscle, stiffness of skeletal muscle, dependent on dam for source. Pigs- muscle weakness, mulberry heart disease, hepatosis dietetia, iron sensitivity in piglets. High polyunstaurated fat in carcass. Poultry- muscular dystrophy, encephalomania, exudative diathesis
Vitamin K
aka menadione
fat soluble
Sources: K1 in green, leafy plants, K2 sythesised by bacteria in rumen/ hindgut
Function: formation of prothrombin
Deficiency: not normally a problem, spoiled sweet clover contains anti vitamin- sweet clover disease. decreased clotting time (especially birds-easily injured, bleed to death)
B vitamins
water soluble vitamins
Source: synthesised by rumen or hindgut flora
Function: most co-enzymes, Riboflavin- hydrogen transport, B6- dysfunction amino acids, folic acid- carrier, vit C anti oxidant
Deficiency: most poor growth, thiamin- nervous dysfunction, biotin- dermatitis and fatty liver, Vit C- scurvy