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68 terms

Anatomy

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Peyer's patches
clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the small intestine
Perforin
The mechanism of the lethal hit of ctotazic t cells involves a protein
T cells
helper, cytotaxic, and regulatory
B lymphocytes develope immunocompetence in the..
bone marrow
Phagocytosis
part of the innate immune system defense
4 most common indicators of the inflammatory system:
redness, pain, heat, swelling
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hypermia caused by
vasodilation
T cells develope immunocompitence in the
Thymus
Chemotaxis.
The migration of phagocytes and white blood cells to an inflamed area along a chemical gradient is called
The thymus is most active during
childhood
The body's innate defenses include:
interferons, inflammation, and the skin
Tonsils
large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx
Fluid that is pushed out of the capillary beds and into the tissue space is called
interstitial
Humoral immunity
is provided by antibodies
Self Antigens
typically aren't percieved as antigens
The inflamatory process begins with the release of chemicals, which:
attract phagocytes to the area, dilate blood vessles, activate pain recepters, and cause capillaries to becom leaky
Pancreas
NOT a lymphatic structure
Natural Killer Cells
can target and induce apoptosis in cancer and virus infected cells
Cytotaxic Cells
The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
Lymph
protein-containing fluid within lymphatic vessels
Spleen
Stores blood platelets
Thoracic Duct
reveives lymph from most of the body
Lymph Nodes
small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
largest lymphatic organ
spleen
Regulatory T-Cells
dampen the activity of both T-cells and B-cells
Diapedesis
the movement of phagocytest through the capillary wall
Memory Cells
enable the immune system to respond quickly and robustly if the same antigen is encountered a second time
Two phagocytic cells of the innate immune system are
Marcrophages and nuetrophils
HIV stands for
Human immunodeficiency virus
Most B cell clone members become
plasma cells during clonal expansion. Only a few become memory cells.
4 types of T cells:
1) Helper: help other cells fight pathogens and do various jobs present antigens. 2) cytotaxic: direcly fight pathogens 3) Regulatory: make sure B and T cells stop responses when neccesary 4) Memory T calls: fight certain diseases they are trained to remember
Longitudinal fissure:
sepereates the cerebral hemispheres
The central sulcus
seperates the frontal and parietal lobes
Sulcus:
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex
Ependymal cells
line the ventricles of the brain
The brain stem consists of:
the midbrain, medulla, and pons
The primary auditory cortex is located in the
temporal lobe
All sensory information is processed and relayed to the correct portions of the cerebrum by the
thalamus
Controls blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rates
Medulla oblongata
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere are called
gyri
Neurons:
conduct impulses, have exceptionally high metabolic rate, and have exteme longevity
The part of the nueron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called
axon
Autonomic nervous system functions:
innveration of glands, innervation of smooth muscle of the digestive tract, innervation of cardiac muscles
Schwann cells are most similar to
oligodendroctyes
How does the interior surface of cell membrane of a resting neuron differ from the external environment?
It's negatively charged and contains less sodium
The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is the
afferent pathway
What channel is always open?
Leakage channel
If the potassium permeability of a resting nueron increases above the normal resting permeability, what effect will this have on the membrane potential?
The inside of the membrane will become more positive, and the membrane will become depolarized
The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus
pia mater
Oversees postural muscles, makes rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium
cerebellum
The white matter of the cerebellum forms the
Arbor vitae
Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are
lobes
The cerebrum and the cerebellum are separated by
The transverse fissure
Inability to move right arm would be the result of damage to the
left frontal
Losing vision would be damage to the
occipital lobe
The highest level of information processing occurs in the
cerebrum
The sense of taste projects to the gustatory cortex located in the
prefrontal cortex
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobe
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the
primary somatosensory cortex
The primary cortex is located in the
precentral gryus
Brocca's area
involved in motor speech ouptut
Wenicke's Area
involved in the understanding of speech and language
Premotor area
Controls movement of voluntary muscles-learned, repetitious movements
Visual Association Area
Interprets visual information like color, texture, shape
visual cortex
processes images from the retina
Limbic System
emotional part of the brain
Reticular formation
filters out excess information
Thalamus
Relay station, bost office of the brain