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Peyer's patches

clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the small intestine


The mechanism of the lethal hit of ctotazic t cells involves a protein

T cells

helper, cytotaxic, and regulatory

B lymphocytes develope immunocompetence in the..

bone marrow


part of the innate immune system defense

4 most common indicators of the inflammatory system:

redness, pain, heat, swelling

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hypermia caused by


T cells develope immunocompitence in the



The migration of phagocytes and white blood cells to an inflamed area along a chemical gradient is called

The thymus is most active during


The body's innate defenses include:

interferons, inflammation, and the skin


large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx

Fluid that is pushed out of the capillary beds and into the tissue space is called


Humoral immunity

is provided by antibodies

Self Antigens

typically aren't percieved as antigens

The inflamatory process begins with the release of chemicals, which:

attract phagocytes to the area, dilate blood vessles, activate pain recepters, and cause capillaries to becom leaky


NOT a lymphatic structure

Natural Killer Cells

can target and induce apoptosis in cancer and virus infected cells

Cytotaxic Cells

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells


protein-containing fluid within lymphatic vessels


Stores blood platelets

Thoracic Duct

reveives lymph from most of the body

Lymph Nodes

small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels

largest lymphatic organ


Regulatory T-Cells

dampen the activity of both T-cells and B-cells


the movement of phagocytest through the capillary wall

Memory Cells

enable the immune system to respond quickly and robustly if the same antigen is encountered a second time

Two phagocytic cells of the innate immune system are

Marcrophages and nuetrophils

HIV stands for

Human immunodeficiency virus

Most B cell clone members become

plasma cells during clonal expansion. Only a few become memory cells.

4 types of T cells:

1) Helper: help other cells fight pathogens and do various jobs present antigens. 2) cytotaxic: direcly fight pathogens 3) Regulatory: make sure B and T cells stop responses when neccesary 4) Memory T calls: fight certain diseases they are trained to remember

Longitudinal fissure:

sepereates the cerebral hemispheres

The central sulcus

seperates the frontal and parietal lobes


A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex

Ependymal cells

line the ventricles of the brain

The brain stem consists of:

the midbrain, medulla, and pons

The primary auditory cortex is located in the

temporal lobe

All sensory information is processed and relayed to the correct portions of the cerebrum by the


Controls blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rates

Medulla oblongata

Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere are called



conduct impulses, have exceptionally high metabolic rate, and have exteme longevity

The part of the nueron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called


Autonomic nervous system functions:

innveration of glands, innervation of smooth muscle of the digestive tract, innervation of cardiac muscles

Schwann cells are most similar to


How does the interior surface of cell membrane of a resting neuron differ from the external environment?

It's negatively charged and contains less sodium

The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is the

afferent pathway

What channel is always open?

Leakage channel

If the potassium permeability of a resting nueron increases above the normal resting permeability, what effect will this have on the membrane potential?

The inside of the membrane will become more positive, and the membrane will become depolarized

The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus

pia mater

Oversees postural muscles, makes rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium


The white matter of the cerebellum forms the

Arbor vitae

Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are


The cerebrum and the cerebellum are separated by

The transverse fissure

Inability to move right arm would be the result of damage to the

left frontal

Losing vision would be damage to the

occipital lobe

The highest level of information processing occurs in the


The sense of taste projects to the gustatory cortex located in the

prefrontal cortex

The visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe

The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the

primary somatosensory cortex

The primary cortex is located in the

precentral gryus

Brocca's area

involved in motor speech ouptut

Wenicke's Area

involved in the understanding of speech and language

Premotor area

Controls movement of voluntary muscles-learned, repetitious movements

Visual Association Area

Interprets visual information like color, texture, shape

visual cortex

processes images from the retina

Limbic System

emotional part of the brain

Reticular formation

filters out excess information


Relay station, bost office of the brain

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