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Chapter Review 22
study outline at end of chapter in text book
Terms in this set (92)
includes the cells, tissues and organs responsible for
the body against a variety of
pathogens, or disease-causing organisms
the primary cells produced by the lymphatic system that respond to invading pathogens, abnormal body cells, and foreign protein.
is the ability to resist infection and disease
Lymphatic vessels are also called
a fluid that resembles plasma but contains a much lower concentration of suspended proteins and flows along a network of lymphatic vessels (lymphatics).
Where do the lymphatic vessels begin
in peripheral tissues and connect to veins.
Primary lymphoid tissues and organs
are sites where lymphocytes are formed and mature;
red bone marrow
(monocytes and macrophages are formed here too)and
Secondary lymphoid tissues and organs
are where lymphocytes are activated and cloned (production of identical cellular copies); appendix, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and MALT.
The continuous circulation of extracellular fluid helps transport lymphocytes and other defense cells from one grand to another this process also
maintains normal blood volume and eliminates local variations in the composition of the interstitial fluid.
The smallest lymphatic vessels are called
lymphatic capillaries (terminal lymphatics)
The two large collecting vessels; where the lymphatic vessels empty into
thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct.
Thoracic duct collects lymph from
the body inferior to the diaphragm and from the left side of the body superior to the diaphragm
The "smaller" right lymphatic duct collects lymph from
the right side of the body superior to the diaphragm.
The base of the thoracic duct is an expanded, saclike chamber called
the cisterns chyli
The right lymphatic duct is formed by
the merging of the right jugular, right subclavian and the right bronchomediastinal trunks.
The three classes of lymphocytes:
T (thymus-dependent) Cells, B (bone marrow-derived) cells, and NK (natural killer) cells.
Blockage of the lymphatic drainage from a limb; interstitial fluids accumulate and the limb gradually becomes swollen and grossly distended(bloated).
If the condition lymphedema persists
the connective tissues lose their elasticity and the swelling becomes permanent.
Most lymphocytes type 80 percent:
T (thymus-dependent) Cells, tissue immunity provides
cell-mediated (cellular) immunity
Primary types of T Cells:
Cytotoxic T Cells, Helper T Cells, Suppressor T Cells and Memory T Cells.
Cytotoxic T Cells
attack cells infected by viruses and responsible
cell-mediated [cellular] immunity.
Memory T Cells
Clone more of themselves in repose to "remembered" antigen
Helper T cells
stimulate function of T cells and B cells
Suppressor T Cells
Inhibit/prevent function of T cells and B cells
Regulatory T Cells
Helper T cells and Suppressor T cells helps establish and coordinate the sensitivity of the immune response.
B Cells can differentiate "develop" into
plasma cells, which produce and secrete
Antibodies react/bind with
chemical targets called
produced by the B Cells developed into plasma cells
. Antibodies in body fluids.
B Cells are responsible for
Antibody-mediated (humoral"liquid") immunity; produce and secrete SPECIFIC antibodies found in the body fluids. Y complex; need helper T cells to accomplish activation.
NK cells are also called
Large granular lymphocytes
NK cells attack
cells, normal cells infected with viruses, and cancer cells.
NK cells provide
innate (nonspecific) immunity; Immune surveillance
stimulate the immune response and are usually proteins, but some lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.
Lymphocytes continuously migrate
into and out of the blood through the lymphoid tissues and organs.
, involves the red bone marrow, thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
the lymphoid tissue that protects the epithelia of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts.
Important lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes, thymus, and the spleen.
The Deep Cortex is dominated by
The Outer Cortex and Medulla contain
Location of thymus
lies behind the sternum, in the anterior mediastinum
Thymus epithelial cells (TECs) regulate
T cell development and function
Functions of the spleen
removes abnormal blood cells and other blood components by phagocytosis, storage of iron recycled for RBC (sent to bone marrow) and initiation of immune responses by B and T cells.
The lymphatic system is a major component of the body defenses, which are classified as
Innate (nonspecific) immunity and adaptive (specific) immunity.
Innate (nonspecific) immunity protects
without distinguishing one threat from another, responses the same regardless of the type of invader and present at brith.
7 major categories of Innate (nonspecific) defenses include:
physical barriers, phagocytic cells, immune surveillance, interferons, complement, inflammation and fever.
Adaptive (specific) immunity protects
against particular threats only, develop after birth as a result of accidental or deliberate exposure to environmental hazards. involves two sub categories ACTIVE and PASSIVE immunity (establishes immunity)
Coordinated action of : B cells and T cells.
The two types of phagocytic cells are
microphages and macrophages.
neutrophils and eosinophils
that normally circulate in the blood, enters peripheral tissues to fight infections
Large phagocytic cells, distributed throughout the body, and make up the monocyte-macrophage system
small proteins released by cells infected with viruses-trigger the production of antiviral proteins which interfere with viral replication inside the cell.
Three type of Interferons
Alpha-interferons, Beta-interferons, Gamma-interferons.
produced by leukocytes, stimulate NK cells
Secreted by fibrocytes, slow inflammation
secreted by T cells and NK cells, stimulate macrophage activity
an Adaptive (specific) immunity; develops
after exposure to an antigen
, response by making its own antibody.
Naturally acquired ACTIVE immunity:
exposure to pathogens
Artificially induced ACTIVE immunity:
containing pathogens to prevent disease.
an Adaptive (specific) immunity;
antibodies are transferred from another source
Naturally acquired PASSIVE immunity:
from the mother
Artificially induced PASSIVE immunity:
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
differs among individuals
the membrane glycoprotenis
; the surface antigen that recognizes foreign antigen and coordinates/activates the immune response.
antigens are taken into B cell, processed, reappear on surface, bound to class II MHC protein.
B Cell Activation
Helper T cell binds to MHC complex secretes cytokines that promote b cell activation and division.
B Cell Division
Activated B Cells divide into
Memory B cells
synthesize and secrete antibodies into interstitial fluid
Memory B cells
Like memory T cells, remain in reserve to respond to next infection.
Two parallel paris of polypeptide chains; one pair of
chains and one pair of
chains.; each chain contains:
5 types of antibodies/immunoglobulins
IgG, IgE, IgD, IgM, IgA; are found in body fluids, determined by constant segments, no effect on antibody specificity.
80 percent of all antibodies, responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria and toxins, can cross the placenta and maternal antibody provides PASSIVE immunity to fetus.
attaches to exposed surfaces of basophils and mast cells, stimulates to release histamine/chemicals to accelerate inflammation, important in the allergic response.
on the surfaces of B cells, plays role in the sensitization of the b cell involved. works with IgE for greater inflammatory response
the first calls of antibody secreted, declines as IgG production accelerates, the anti-A and anti-B antibodies are responsible for the agglutination of incompatible blood types and may also attack bacteria that is insensitive to IgG
a "pre-defensive mechanism" found in glandular sections such as mucus, tears, saliva, and semen, attacks pathogens before they access internal tissues, circulate in blood.
Seven Functions of Antigen-Antibody Complexes
Neutralization, Precipitation/agglutination, activation of complement, attraction of phagocytes, ozonization increasing phagocyte efficiency, stimulation of inflammation, prevention of bacterial and viral adhesion.
takes time to develop, antigens activate B cells (plasma cells differentiate), Antibody titer slowly rises. IgM
activates memory B cells for future attacks
Immune system development
fetus can produce immune response from mother has immunological competence; thats why you have to be cautions during first trimester
Maternal IgG antibodies
mothers milk provides IgA antibodies
Infant produces IgG antibodies through exposure to antigens
a malfunction of system that recognizes and ignores "normal" antigens. activated B cells make "autoantibodies" agains body cells. e.g. thyroid's, Rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
problems with embryological development of lymphoid tissues. can result in Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) e.g. HIV
Immunosuppressive drugs or radiation treatments can
lead to complete immunological failure.
inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens.
Antigens that trigger allergic reactions
changes capillary permeability (vasodialte), produces swelling -hives- smooth muscle of respiratory system contract. can cause anaphylactic shock. (peripheral vasodilation)
Drugs that block histamine realized by mast cells
steroidal inflammatory (released by adrenal gland), lost term section (chronic stress) can depress immune system.
Function of glucocoricoids
depression of inflammatory response
Four effects of aging
1. Thymic hormone production is greatly reduced
2. T cells become less responsive to antigens
3. Fewer T cells reduces responsiveness of B cells
4. Immune surveillance against tumor cells declines
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