Terms in this set (62)

-Paleolithic
-Limestone figure
-Found in Willendorf, Austria (named after findspot)
-Round because the artist used the natural shape of the stone
-Belly button is a natural impression in stone
-Exaggeration of anatomy suggest it was a fertility object
-Artist did not aim for naturalism
-Emphasis on female anatomy
-Pubic area sculpted too
-Breast have huge focus, small arms rest on them
-Nomadic lifestyle, must carry everything with you, so this is small
-Limited selection of carving tools
-Top concern was survival, not significant free time
-She is not individualized
-Conceptual: idea of woman, not a real représentation
-4 inches tall
-Color had been applied to this at one point

- Austria
- Small figurative sculpture
- Limestone
- 4 inches tall
- Was pigmented using natural materials (ochre)
- Shape of stone presented form (perhaps this is why the feet are cut off), the bellybutton is a natural impression of stone
- Small and easily carried (nomadic)
- Tools (other stone pieces, stick, animal bone)
- Simple form, didn't have tools for details
- Survival is most important - not a lot of time to create
- Objects named by location found or person who found them
- Venus = fertility figure, reproduction
- A number of these figures found shows shared interest in reproduction
- The way body was created puts emphasis on breasts, pubic area, stomach area. Other parts of body ignored to bring more attention to reproductive areas
- Not individualized, no facial features
- Not accurate proportionately, had certain motivation to highlight femininity
- People probably didn't live that long - fertility important because there's safety in numbers
- Could this be a doll? Piece of erotica? Teach young girls about reproducing/female body?
- Conceptual - concept of women and female body function/female experience, emphasizing idea about women sexuality. Not a literal representation, the form isn't perfect. It's not drawn from observation but from an idea
- Detail of painted ceiling in Altamira Cave, Santander, Spain
- No ground line, they seem to float, no indication of place
- Bison are turned in on themselves
**surface of cave gives animals form; cave structure influences art
-Larger artwork than sculpture because of freedom of medium
-Profile view
-Conceptual, the notion of the animal
-You can see all 4 legs, better sense of anatomy
-Provides more information with profile view
-Minerals used for this
-Palette is limited
-Paintbrushes used
-Paleolithic man lived in mouth of caves, yet this wall art is very deep, why?
-No light, crude animal oil lamps used
-It gets cold there
-Therefore, this was important for these people
-What did this mean?
-These people ate reindeer largely, why bison depicted?
-Perhaps a religious cult, it has mystical significance

- First discovered in Modern Age (1879)
- Mouths of caves were covered over in wilderness
- Updraft of air led to its discovery
- Bison curled into himself LIKE in Bison with turned head
- Surface of cave itself suggests animal form. Artist gave protrusion dimensionality
- Used pigmented minerals, natural/earthtone colors. Applied with paintbrushes (sticks and animal fur) and mixed with water or human saliva. Paint splattered on?
- Conceptual approach of bison
- Sculpted animals profile because you can see shape and size - provides more information with more body
- Paleolithic man live in mouth of cave?
- Paintings found deep in the cave - man went to a lot of effort to hide their images (gives importance)
- No lighting, found crude oil lamps for little lighting
- Very cold temperature, lowered to 50 degrees
- Why did they go through so much trouble? 19th century had romantic idea while 20th century said it was to ensure animals for the hunt for food - but only reindeer bones were found at the mouths of the cave. Maybe they worshipped the animals which would explain the sheltered images, perhaps they found mysical power in animals.
-Monumental architecture using massive stones: megaliths (great stones); megalithic age
-Megalithic monument
-South England
-Henge: an arrangement of megalithic stones in a circle, often surrounded by a ditch
-Post and lintel
- Vertical member supports horizontal
- Stones are dressed: forms have been shaped; adding effect to surface
- Tapered at the top
- Site developed c 3,000 BCE
- Around 2,000 BCE upright stones added
- Outer ring, inner ring, horseshoe shaped
- 4 layers of rings total
- Giant solar clock theory:
- Agricultural society, so a clock like this would help with harvesting and planting
- Way to know when summer solstice was
- Burial site 1,000 yrs before stones
- Sandstone and volcanic stone
- Outer ring: 100 ft in diameter
- Someone has authority and there is a sense of community-many people came together to create this
- Society is organized, there is progression

-sizable/sophisticated
- social/political/religious
- theres a number of stone circles in the UK
- megaliths (figures)
- moved and dressed (shaped) and put in upright positions
- excavated > landscape has been sculpted
- circles are like ripples in water
- stones marked graves/place of burial > upright stones then added, stones added at different times
- outer ring, inner ring, horseshoe shape, smaller stones
- dressing - working with stone to make effect on surface/shape, =narrowed/tapered at the top, caps on top, post and lentil - most basic form of architecture (vertical member supports horizontal member) > enclosing outer ring
- inner horseshoe "broken" lentils NOT continuous
- giant solar clock, help man plan for seasons, help priest know when summer solstice is because days get shorter and shorter
- 100 ft in diameter
-spearheaded by religious people
- shows man has advanced > developed equipment, organization, hierarchy of structure, IMPORTANT: enough people could construct this
-Sumerian
-3 bands, called registers or friezes
-All figures on a common ground line
-This is very DIFFERENT from the multi-leveled figures seen in cave paintings
-Sumerians pioneered a hierarchy of scale
-Way to distinguish most important figures
-Celebratory scene
-Not really a standard
-Wood decorated with inlay
-Natural materials; shells, lapis lazuli (blue); red limestone
-Narrative imagery in bands
-Subject: war
-Enemies are under horses
-No background
-Lowest level > fighting
-middle > Sumerian soldiers/nude prisoners of war
-Here, nudity represents the loss of agency
-Top > victorious king, the subject is a banquet
- Arranged hierarchically
-Subtle shift in scale
-Animals in profile
-A military standard-would be mounted on a pole
-Two sided
-IMPORTANT: this says that for the Sumerians, being victorious in war and royal customs are important

- in Royal tomb at Ur
- box shape
- wood decorated
- color comes from natural materials (shells, lapis, limestone)
- arranged narrative imagery in bands
- First side shows victory of war, soldiers and chariots riding into war, falling under legs of horses
- no background
- lowest level > fighting
- 2nd level > Sumerian soldiers marching with prisoners of war (naked = lost, defeated, captive)
- arranged heirarchly
- top level > soldiers marching/carrying things for feast for king, people entertaining royalty (harp)
- mixed profile view
---shift in scale--- for king and members of court
- importance of being a warrior and customs of guest-host relationship
-Akkadian
-Remember, ---god like kings---
-King Naram-Sin
-Commemorates defeat of Lullubi
-FIRST known monument celebrating an individual military victory > the king wanted it documented
-Soldiers are hiking up side of mountain
-We can see a hierarchy of scale
-LIKE ziggurat, the gods are at the top
-gods shining down on victory
-Naram-Sin wears a special helmet
-Bull horns
-he is about to shoot the enemy
-Enemy begs for mercy, the other is dead
-Man is under Naram-Sin's control
-Contrast between the organization of the Akkadians and the disorder of the enemies
-NOT A TRADITIONAL FRIEZE
-This is the first time we see an artist chose to use a landscape while still using tiers, NOT a succession of bands
-The narrative is organized by the mountain in this sense
-Obviously mixed profile, frontal of torso, conceptual

- large, flat piece of stone
- erected, partially in the ground, vertical
- carved in relief
- 6.5 ft tall
- sand stone
- military victory celebrated, remembered/documented
- soldiers hiking up mountain
- Naram-Sin (bigger in scale) at the top
- hierarchy of scale (bigger people are most important)
- importance of elevation, being closer to the heavens
- gods shining down on victory
- Naram-Sin holding bow and arrow (holding back the string), holding battle ax
- He is about to kill his last enemy (who is pleading for mercy in front of dead enemy)
- bodies falling down side of the mountain
- Naram-Sin wearing symbol of his kingship: helmet with bull (signifying power)
- cuneiform inscription (dashes and lines)
- figures are in mixed-profile view, not naturalistic
- full narrative, complex story being told
- NOT compartmentalized, loosening in arrangement of subject matter
-Egypt was isolated by deserts, protecting the civilization from outside influence
-3500-500 BCE Egypt flourished
-We know much more about Egyptian art than we do of Mesopotamian
-This is partly accounted for by Mesopotamian societies just destroying each other constantly
-A lot of Egyptian art is in stone-they had plenty of it
-Hieroglyphics developed in 5000 BCE
-Shortly after cuneiform
-Rosetta Stone
-1799 found during Napoléon's Egyptian campaign
Jean Francois Champollion
-The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion is Demotic script, and the lowest is Ancient Greek
-Egypt centered on Nile, and unlike the Tigris and Euphrates the Nile was very navigable
-Was a secure, stable water source
-Egyptian art heavily influences tombs
-They did this because life was so secure there were about to wish and dream about a great afterlife
-Meanwhile in Mesopotamia, huge temples, the largest of architectural structures, was to ensure political stability THIS IS A HUGE DIFFERENCE
-Ka: the energy, the animation of your being
-It was eternal
-Needed a resting place once body died
-Also worshipped the Pharaoh as a god
-Important for political power

- isolated by deserts, little interaction with outsiders
- natural setting protects Egyptians from outside influence/aggression
- 3500-500 BCE
- Egypt has more information than Mesopotamia because wars resulted in the destruction of their artifacts, Egypt has more intact archeological remains with few interruptions
- Libyan and Arabian deserts protected
- Egyptian remains intact because they were carved out of stone, Mesopotamia used too much mud brick for it to last
- Egypt had abundant amount of stone > more records
- (permanent materials and little military invasions)
- hieroglyphics > written language
- Rosetta Stone

- Egypt centered around Nile river, river was critical for survival
- (Tigris and Euphrates not easily navigable)
- Nile allowed for stability and unity, provided agriculture (water and greens)
- life in Egypt was stable, secure, predictable
- #1 form of architecture: funerary architecture, the building of tombs
- put efforts into afterlife (so it may be peaceful, secure, abundant)
- humans come into life with ka (life force/energy)
- when mortal body dies, their ka is eternal
- polytheistic > nature deities, local deities
- worshipped the Pharaoh as a god
-Palette: stone slab with a circular depression
-Celebrating the defeat of lower Egypt and unification of two kingdoms
-Narmer's name is at the top
-He wears the upper Egyptian bowling pin like crown
-Mixed profile
-He effortlessly slays enemy
-God Horus, the king's protector, is to the right
-Objective: characterize the pharaoh as supreme and protected by the gods
-Papyrus plants
-King is barefoot
-Barefoot was a sign of ritualistic events
-Like the dying lioness and like one of the injured lions from Ashurbanipal, the sandal bearer is on his own plane

-On the back side the king wears the crown of lower Egypt-sign of victory
-The defeated are piled up at the bottom, bull attacks
-Pharaoh wears a bull tail
-Used kohl eyeliner to protect eyes from the sun
-Compare to Mesopotamian art
-Both in bands, low relief, formulaic repetition
-Normal compositional scheme
-This palette was used to prepare eye makeup
-Intertwining animal heads are a sign of unified Egypt

- towards end of predynastic period
- King Narmer claimed to have unified the 2 kingdoms, defeated lower Egypt under his control, (a lot of kings claimed to have done this > collective effort)
- Narmer's name in hieroglyphics
- he's wearing crown > dominant king of upper Egypt
- holding scepter in left hand, holding subjective individual by his hair > the king is about to smite enemy with scepter
- person behind king is sandal bearer (king's size is much larger than him)
- hawk of Horus (sun god), on top of papyrus plant (plant of lower Egypt) dominating lower Egypt
- both the king and the hawk are subjugating lower Egypt
- palette is symbolic (no actual record of this event)
- when pharaoh is barefooted > symbolic for ritualistic or mystical events
- below > more of Narmer's enemies flee
- band-like, compartmentalized, ordered
- mother nature's heifer cow on top

On Back side
- Narmer wearing crown of lower Egypt, wearing bull's tale (direct association with strong animal)
- sandal bearer behind him
- soldiers marching in front of Narmer
- the defeated are decapitated, their heads in-between their ankles, their bodies stacked
- on the bottom: bull attacking enemy
- 2 dragons, their necks intertwined for unity
- mixed profile (not true human definition)
- palettes usually used for kohl makeup, this is mostly a presentation piece

- COMPARE: sumerian vase > low relief, no background, subjects placed in formulaic way, mixed profile
-Subterranean chambers
-Solid structure
-Earlier mastabas had an exterior of cut stone to protect mud brick
-This one is solid
-Gifts for Ka could be kept here
-Necropolis: city of the dead
-Saqqara was the necropolis of Memphis
-Western Egypt because the ka travels west
-Had to be off the Nile some because of annual flooding
-Included a chapel with a false door where the ka could join -the world of the living
-Imhotep was first recorded architect
-Master builder for King Djoser
-Each end oriented towards a compass point
-200 ft high
-UNLIKE a ziggurat, Djoser's pyramid is a tomb, not a temple -platform
-Dual function: sign of power and a funerary complex
-Vast space below
-Column shafts resemble papyrus stalks
-Stability of Egyptian society allowed for architectural developments
-Evolved organically
-Started as one mastaba
-One added, two added, two added
-Notion of Pharaoh going towards the heavens to take on a -new role as god of death
-200 ft tall
-100 underground rooms
Protected by a stone wall, with a burial facility near it
-Entrace:
-Pass through a dark hallway, you transition into the space
-Decorated with columns
-EArliest known columns!!
-Fluted like the papyrus trees
-Comes from use of papyrus stalks in bundles
-A familiar look and natural idea

- stepped pyramid
- first name of architect > Imhotep made a radical contribution (new, different, impressive) > reason for recorded/documented name
- structure evolved organically > started as one mastaba > more mastabas added (5 total)
- soars upward > symbolic for movement towards heavens, portrays notion of pharaoh moving to heavens in his afterlife
- 200 ft high
- deliberately placed to line up with cosmic forces (north, south, east, west)
- built out of cut stone
- tomb is subterranean
- this chunk of rock is a marker/symbol of power
- 100 rooms underground
- afterlife largely for royalty, preserving their memory
- pharaoh is intermediary between the heavens and earth for his people
- pyramid not public
- 35ft stone wall around compound
- limited access inside
- smaller tombs outside > (importance on pharaoh)
- enter through dark hallway to bright courtyard > transitional space (symbolic for passing through death into other life)
- enclosed hallways decorated with evenly spaced columns
- EARLIEST known example of columns
- made of stone, fluting
- post and lentil architecture
- has sculptures/statues of the deceased
- activities take place in funerary chapel
- staff keeps offerings going
-Aligned with cardinal points of a compass
-Re was the sun god
-Oldest Pyramid was for Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure newest
-Built over 75 yr span
-Great pyramids are symbols of the sun
-Shape reflects the influence of Heliopolis, the seat of the powerful cult of Re
-Pyramids were where the pharaohs were reborn, like the sun is reborn each day
-Priests made offerings at the mortuary temple
-Khufu: 480 ft tall, largest, 73 acres below
-Chambers added to the interior
-Khafre: 470 ft
-Solid stone
-Stones were dressed, makes stones usable
-Perhaps a pulley system was used to move stones
logistics
-Ground was leveled first
-Must be dressed perfectly
-Laid in one level at a time
-Must be absolutely flat and perfect to meet at top
-Called ashlar masonry
-Originally covered in limestone, white, exterior shell
Reflected sun
-Each had a golden cap
-Probably a permanent labor force
-Used seasonal workers when agricultural jobs were not available
-Pharaoh is a god, that is every reason to help construct

- Khufu: oldest, tallest (480 ft), length of each side at the base (775 ft)
- Khafre: (470 ft) and (707 ft)
- Menkaure: (281) and (356)
- grandfather, son, grandson > ruled for 20 years
- 4 smooth sides, isosceles triangle, symbol associated with sun god Re, line up with sun rays
- NOT stepped
- pyramid is ---place to ascend---, pharaoh moving up to heavens
- these represent planning and effort, construction goes on during pharaohs rule so its ready by his death
---mathematically sophisticated---, leveled the ground before building pyramids, constructed out of solid stone, stones dressed precisely so that they met be flat against each other ashlar masonry
- once finished, encased in pure white limestone slabs, smooth, each had cap of gold on the top
- permanently paid labor force, highly skilled in how to handle stone, helping pharaoh would help them in the afterlife (believed pharaoh was a god)
-Mortuary temples provided places for rulers to worship their patron gods, and this later became a temple to honor the pharaohs themselves after death
-Female pharaoh: Hatshepsut
-She originally was a regent ruler for her stepson, and would not allow him to have the throne when he came of age
-Wore the male ceremonial clothing
-Rises from valley floor in three colonnaded terraces, connected by ramps on a central axis
-Long horizontals and verticals of the colonnades ---repeat pattern of limestone---
-200 statues in the round depict Hatshepsut
-Separate from the Funerary/mortuary Temple
-The funerary/mortuary temple was for offerings, it was a monument
-She would have used this during her life
**Tomb was separate, at Valley Temple**
-One would arrive here by the Nile
-Processional way to Temple
-Straight ahead
-Axial alignment
-100 sphinx lined pathway
-Ramps were used, good for dragging offerings
-Oasis
-There would have been plants on terrace
-Painted walls in galleries
-Architectural forms compliment the setting
-Large monuments-Egypt had the money for it

-FIRST great female ruler in our history
- female king, presented herself as a male ruler, wore a false beard
-kept throne for 20 years when stepson was too young to rule, he sent people to sack her complex when she died
-she is actually buried in a rock-cut tomb in the cliffs of the Nile, complex is funerary temple (separate from the location of her tomb)
-complex is ---accessible---, arrive by Nile > enter valley temple > sacred way to complex
- axial alignment
- 100 sphinx with her head mark the path
- ramp on axis
- partially carved out of living rock, partly filled in using ashlar masonry
- planted like oasis
- 600 ft, monuments began to be large again in the New Kingdom

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