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Genetics Vocab

Science Test Vocabulary to Know
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Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Chromatin
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Phenotype
An organism's physical appearance or visible traits
Gene
The set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Cdominance
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
Traits
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Allele
The different forms of a gene
Mitosis
The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
Interphase
The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs
Adenine
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Guanine
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Purebred
The offspring of many generations that have the same traits
XX
Female
Mendel
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Egg Cell
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Sex Cell
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Carrier
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait
Chromosome
A doubled rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information
Chromatid
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Genotype
An organisms genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Pedigree
A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
Dominant
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
Replication
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus
Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous fora particular trait
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygus
Having two different alleles for a trait
Cytokinesis
The final stage of the cell cycle in which the cell's cytoplasm divides , distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells
Meiosis
The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Thymine
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Cytosine
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Offspring
Product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents
XY
Male
Sperm Cell
the male reproductive cell
Sex Chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female