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Terms in this set (117)
Watson and Crick
Who figured out the structure of DNA?
Transcription is when you transcribe a gene into mRNA
Translation is when you translate the mRNA molecule into a protein
What is the difference between transcription and translation?
Which type of RNA transcribes DNA?
Peptide Bond Formation
What are the three steps of elongation in translation?
Ribo Nucleic Acid
What does RNA stand for?
How do nucleotides pair up in replication?
What are the four nucleotides?
1. RNA is single stranded and DNA double
2. RNA's sugar is ribose DNA's is oxyrobose
3. Nucleotides are different: Uracine and Thymine
In what 3 ways is RNA different from DNA
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
What does DNA stand for?
Translation: Cytoplasm or ribosomal subunits
Where do translation and transcription take place?
What bonds connect amino acids to one another on the tRNA?
2. Nucleic acid
What are two main parts of a virus?
Who used X-Ray crystallography to determine the structure of DNA?
What bonds connect DNA strands?
What virus infects bacteria?
What two things make up the DNA backbone?
mRNA: messenger RNA
tRNA: transfer RNA
rRNA: ribosomal RNA
What are the 3 types of RNA and what do they do?
What is the enzyme that aids in replication?
What are three steps of translation?
1. Cap and tail are added
2. Exons are spliced and introns are cut out
How is eukaryotic RNA processed after transcription?
Human immuno deficiency virus
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
What do HIV and AIDS stand for?
The HIV gets into the cell, brings along its RNA and its enzymes (reverse transcriptase), RT turns RNA into DNA, becomes a provirus by putting itself into the cells DNA, so then it can make more of itself
How do retroviruses work?
Cell division gone mad
What is cancer?
When cells become specialized in structure and function
What does cellular differentiation mean?
When you get DNA from one source and put it into another source.
What is recombinant DNA?
Your genetics in its entirety
What is a genome?
What is the name of the 9000-year-old skeleton found in England?
What is a ball of embryonic stem cells called?
You take an egg cell, you remove the DNA from an egg cell, you take the donor DNA (what you want to clone), you put that into the egg cell, you cultivate the egg cell into a blastocyst, then you transplant the blastocyst into a surrogate mom, and then the surrogate mom gives birth.
How do you clone an animal?
What are cancer genes called?
A cell that is not specialized.
What is a stem cell?
What was the first FDA approved genetically engineered medicine/genetically modified product?
What does "lac" stand ford?
Short Tandem Repeat
What is an STR?
3. Set of Genes
What are the three parts of an Operon?
What is the on-off switch called?
1. You mutate it to create hyperactive growth factor
2. Multiple copies of the same gene (growth proteins in excess).
3. You move the gene in front of an active promoter.
What are the three ways that a proto-oncogene can become cancerous?
You take a gene, you insert it into a virus that is non-lethal, and you inject the virus into a human, it infects cells and inserts good genes into those cells.
How does gene therapy work?
You take bacterial plasmid, you use restriction enzymes to cut the plasmid so then you can insert the gene of interest using sticky ends that
How do we use bacteria to make human proteins?
Mutagens or Carcinogens
What is the name given to agents that cause cancer?
The lactose enters the cell, binds to the repressor, and falls off the operator. Now the promoter can makes the repressor protein fall off so transcription starts.
Explain what happens when lactose enters the cell to the point when all of it is finally digested.
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
How do we amplify the amount of DNA in a small sample?
Gel Electrophoresis - separates DNA fragments (add restriction enzymes to chop up DNA)
Explain how we distinguish between two different DNA samples.
Tumor Suppressors and Genes that initiate cell division (Growth-stimulating genes)
What are two types of proto-oncogenes?
1. Reproductive - implant blastocyst into surrogate mother
2. Therapeutic - implant blastocyst into a Petri dish
What's the difference between reproductive and therapeutic cloning?
The master control gene that determines body plan.
What are homeotic genes?
What enzyme does the repressor block?
The Origin of Species
What was the name of Darwin's revolutionary book?
Who influenced Darwin's thinking in terms of geologic time?
Group of fertile individuals who live close together who can produce offspring
Which scientist thoughts that acquire characteristics could be inherited?
How best adapted you are to your environment
When was Darwin's book published?
A change in the gene pool due to chance
What is genetic drift?
Gradualism is the idea that species change gradually over long period of time
Punctuated equilibrium is the idea that species diverge in sudden spurts
What is the difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?
(Causes reproductive success)
What two factors drive natural selection?
Group of the same species living in the same place at the same time
Alleles that exist in a population
What is a gene pool?
Comparative anatomy or homology
What are the 5 supports of evolution?
Radiometric or radioactive dating
What method do we use to date fossils?
Pangea, 200 million years
What was the same of the supercontinent and how long did it begin to break apart?
Natural - when nature chooses certain traits for survival
Artificial - when scientists choose certain traits for survival
What is the difference between natural and artificial selection?
Allopatric is when members of the same species become separated (by mountain ranges, rivers, ect.), they can eventually become separate species.
Sympatric is when new species spring up within a population.
What is the difference between Allopatric and sympatric speciation?
1. Temporal Isolation
2. Habitat Isolation
3. Behavioral Isolation
Name the three pre-zygotic barriers.
1. Hybrid inviability.
2. Hybrid sterility.
3. Hybrid breakdown.
Name the three post-zygotic barriers.
Each species has two part name with Genus and Species. Example: Homo Sapiens.
What is a binomial? Give an example.
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Name the categories of taxonomy in order
In what type of rock are fossils formed?
A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.
What is a tissue?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Name the four types of tissue
What is fat tissue called?
Cartilage, bone, blood, loose connective
Name four types of connective tissue.
1. Cardiac muscles account for heartbeat
2. Skeletal muscle is responsible for voluntary movements
3. Smooth muscle lines the walls of your organs
What are three types of muscle tissue and what is their function?
A hot tub full
How much fluid do the kidneys filter each day?
Name four different organ systems.
1. Delivers oxygen and nutrients
2. Circulate nutrients
What are two functions of the circulatory system?
What system regulates hormones?
They are necessary because they are needed to help enzymes perform chemical reactions.
Why do we need vitamins?
Endotherms is (like human) we make our own heat but Ectotherms have to obtain heat from their
surroundings (like lizards).
What is the difference between an Ectotherms and Endotherms?
Small intestines absorb nutrients.
Large intestines get rid of waste and reabsorbs water.
Villi increases surface area on their interiors.
What are the functions of the small and large intestines and what are the structures called that increase
surface area on their interiors?
What connects the kidneys to the bladder?
What is the name given to describe stomach paste?
What system includes the hair, nails, and skin?
What is the name of the capillary knot in the nephrons?
Vitamins and essential amino acids.
Name two types of essential nutrients.
Name 3 organs that aid the stomach in digestion.
What is the name of the tubule containing filtrate in the nephrons?
The wave-like movement that pushes food down through the esophagus and small intestine.
What is peristalsis?
State of equilibrium in body.
What is homeostasis?
In what two ways does the mouth break down food?
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
What is an organ system?
To process and extract nutrients from food. (To break down food and absorb the nutrients)
What is the purpose of the digestive system?
What is the basic "unit" of the kidneys?
When you breathe in, it goes down. When you breathe out, it goes up. It contracts/expands.
How does the diaphragm work?
What is the largest artery?
What are the four lobes of the brain?
The left pumps blood to the whole body, the right only to the lungs.
Why is the right ventricle not as muscular as the left ventricle?
Potassium and Sodium
What are two ions involved in nerve impulses?
Trace the path of blood from the right atrium to the superior and inferior vena cavae?
Bronchi (leads to the lungs) and then splits into bronchioles leads to avelies
Which tubes lead to the lungs and what do they branch into?
Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
What are the four chambers of the heart?
What is the name of the goopy liquid behind the lens of the eye?
Where the optic nerve leads to the brain.
Why do we have a blind spot?
What chemicals are released across the synaptic cleft?
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, avili, bloodstream, capillaries wrap around the avili
Trace an oxygen molecule from the larynx to your bloodstream?
What is the name of the uterine lining?
Motor and sensory
What are two types of neurons?
Brain and spinal chord
What compromises the central nervous system?
What molecule binds oxygen in red blood cells?
In the testis and the ovaries.
Where are eggs and sperm located?
What is the opening of the uterus called?
Where is the egg fertilized?
Is our circulatory system open or closed?
Mucus filters dust and bacteria.
Why is it good to breathe through your nose?
What is a nerve cell called?
What is the clear covering of the eye called?
Arteries away, veins towards
Which blood vessels lead towards the heart? Away?
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