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what are waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields?
7 electromagnetic waves (short to long)
7 visible forms of electromagnetic waves (long to short)
what is the term for the amount of energy associated with an object's motion; energy of motion?
kinetic energy (KE)
what is the term for when energy is not lost but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE?
law of conservation of energy
what are negatively charged subatomic particles found in various energy levels (orbital shells)?
what may cause imbalance in charge, resulting in either excessive protons or neutrons?
what is the term for the total number of protons and neutrons found within a nucleus of an atom?
moving down a group or column, what happens to the number of electrons and filled electron shells?
as the number of electrons and filled electron shells increase moving down a column, what happens to the valence electrons?
remain the same
what happens to the electrons as the number of filled energy shells increase?
electrons become farther away from the nucleus
what happens to the atomic radii as the electrons become farther away from the nucleus?
what happens to ionization energy as the atomic radii increases moving down a group?
the energy decreases
what is the term from the chemical merging of atoms due to their electron arrangement?
3 external factors that effect the activity of an enzyme?
flexibility of an enzyme allows its active site surface to do what when placed in contact with a substrate
what happens to the barrier between the products and the reactant when enzymes lower the active energy?
the barrier is lessened
when the barrier between products and reactant are lessened by an enzyme, it allows what to occur?
a greater reaction rate
what are elements that may accept or donate electrons and possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties?
covalent bonding is greatest between atoms what share similar what?
electronegativites; or similar attractions for electrons.
what is the goal of balancing an equation?
to make certain that there are equal numbers of each atom on the reactant side and the product side
what refers to the chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to maintain life?
what is the term that can chemically split the liquid water molecule into gaseous components?
pure water that serves as a pH standard is central to what 2 things?
2) enzyme function
what is the term for the temperature and pressure at which water will coexists as a solid, liquid, and gas?
triple-point of water
large specific heat of water enables it to undergo what?
minor temperature changes compared to the environment
what is the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition b/w a liquid and gas?
heat of vaporization
what is the term in which the atoms are arranged in a highly ordered state, to state in which the atoms lack true order?
what is the term for the physical connection b/w atoms that does not alter the chemical nature of the atoms?
what is the term that is related to the energy needed to cause phase transition at fixed temperature?
transitions b/w solid, liquid, and gas phases are achieved by how?
adding or subtracting energy from the system
evaporation of a liquid is achieved by what 3 things?
3)fast movement of the surrounding air mass
the physical collision at the surface layer of the a liquid acts to remove what?
the faster-moving liquid molecules
transition from a liquid to a gas takes place by breaking what?
the physical bond within the liquid.
heat of vaporization to transition from a liquid to a gas depends on what 2 things?
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