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153 terms

Earth and Physical Science

STUDY
PLAY
what are waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields?
electromagnetic waves
7 electromagnetic waves (short to long)
1)gamma
2)x-ray
3)ultraviolet
4)visible
5)infrared
6)microwave
7)radio waves
the visible part of the spectrum is further subdivided by what?
color bands
7 visible forms of electromagnetic waves (long to short)
1)red
2)orange
3)yellow
4)green
5)blue
6)indigo
7)violet
2 units that energy is often quantified
1)Joules (J)
2)calories
which is larger b/w Joules and calories?
joules
what is the term for the amount of energy associated with an object's motion; energy of motion?
kinetic energy (KE)
any increase in an objects velocity results in a dramatic increase in what?
the object's KE
any doubling of the velocity will cause the KE to increase by a factor of what?
4 times
what is the term for the amount of energy stored in an object; stored energy?
potential energy (PE)
what is the formula for KE?
KE=1/2 mv²
what is the formula for PE?
PE=mgh
what can be used to produce an object's motion?
PE
what is the term for when energy is not lost but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE?
law of conservation of energy
what is the term for anything that takes up space and has mass?
matter
mass is not the same as what?
weight
what is the quantity of matter an object has?
mass
what are substances that cannot be broken into simpler types of matter?
elements
what are positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom?
protons
the number of protons in an atoms distinguishes what?
the atomic number of the element.
what are neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom?
neutrons
what are negatively charged subatomic particles found in various energy levels (orbital shells)?
electrons
what is a dynamic event that alters the chemical makeup of an atom?
chemical reaction
what may cause imbalance in charge, resulting in either excessive protons or neutrons?
chemical reaction
what is an imbalance that produces a positively or negatively charged atom?
ion
what two main things contribute to an atoms mass?
1)protons
2)neutrons
what is the term for the total number of protons and neutrons found within a nucleus of an atom?
mass number
what is the average mass of all of the known isotopes of an element?
atomic mass
3 things that contribute to the atoms mass
1)protons
2)neutrons
3)electrons
what is the term that refer's to the positive or negative distribution within an atom?
charge
what are atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons?
isotopes.
what controls the rate of chemical reactions?
catalysts
what increases reaction rates?
promoters
what reduced reaction rates?
inhibitors
reaction rates depend on what?
the frequency of contact of reactants with catalysts
increasing reaction rates may be accomplished artificially by increasing what?
the substrate
how does catalysts increase reaction rates?
by lowering the activation energy
elements used to be arranged by what?
atomic mass
how are elements now arranged in the periodic table?
by atomic number
what its he arrangement of electrons within orbits around the nucleus?
orbital shells
the number of electrons increase from _____ to ____?
left to right
as the number of protons increase, what happens to the nuclear charge?
it increases
as protons and nuclear charge increase what happens to the atomic radii?
it decreases
moving down a group or column, what happens to the number of electrons and filled electron shells?
increases
as the number of electrons and filled electron shells increase moving down a column, what happens to the valence electrons?
remain the same
what are the electrons i the outermost shell of an atom?
valence electrons
what happens to the electrons as the number of filled energy shells increase?
electrons become farther away from the nucleus
what happens to the atomic radii as the electrons become farther away from the nucleus?
it increases.
what happens to ionization energy as the atomic radii increases moving down a group?
the energy decreases
what is the measure of an atom's attraction on electrons in a chemical bond?
electronegativity
the greater the electronegativity the greater the what?
the attraction for bonding electrons
what is the term from the chemical merging of atoms due to their electron arrangement?
chemical bonding
what are elements that donate highly conductive electrons to their environment?
metals
what is a protein that is soluble?
globular proteins
each amino acid sequence produces what kind of structure?
a 3-D structure
3 external factors that effect the activity of an enzyme?
1)temperature
2)pH
3)substrate concentration
what is the value that measure the H+ concentration within a solution?
pH
what is a molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme?
substrate
what are chemical reactions with a cell?
metabolic pathways
enzymes attaches to substrates molecules and convert the molecules into what?
products
flexibility of an enzyme allows its active site surface to do what when placed in contact with a substrate
reshape
what acts to lower the activation energy?
enzymes
what happens to the barrier between the products and the reactant when enzymes lower the active energy?
the barrier is lessened
when the barrier between products and reactant are lessened by an enzyme, it allows what to occur?
a greater reaction rate
what can compete with substrates by blocking its active sites?
inhibitors
enzymes can catalyzed what 2 reactions?
forward
reverse

CO2 + H2O <-->H2CO3<-->H+ + HCO3
what is used to measure the strength of acidic/basic solutions?
pH scale
what is a solution with a pH value less than 7?
acidic solutions
what is a solution with a pH value greater than 7?
basic solution
2 methods of chemical bonding
1)ionic
2)covalent
what is the electrical attraction between ions of opposite charged?
ionic
what is the sharing of electrons between atoms?
covalent
3 examples of hydrocarbons
1)methane
2)butane
3)propane
2 subdivision of hydrocarbons
1)saturated
2)unsaturated
saturated hydrocarbons are also known as what?
alkanes
saturated hydrocarbons are composed entirely of what kind of bonds?
single bonds
saturated hydrocarbon's carbons are fully connected with what element?
hydrogen
what is the general formula for saturated hydrocarbons?
CnH2n+2
what are the basis of petroleum fuels?
saturated hydrocarbons
how many bonds are in unsaturated hydrocarbons?
one or more double or triple bonds b/w carbon atoms
what are unsaturated hydrocarbons with 1 double bond?
alkenes
what is the general formula of alkenes?
CnH2n
what are unsaturated hydrocarbons with triple bonds?
alkynes
what is the generals formula of alkynes?
CnH2n-2
metals are to the ____ of the zig zag line of the periodic table?
left
nonmetals are to the _____ of the zig zag line of the periodic table
right
what is in contact with the zig zag line?
metalloids
what are elements that may accept or donate electrons and possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties?
metalloids
what tends to be a cation?
metals
what tends to be an anion?
nonmetallic properties
what kind of bonds complete on another by donation and acceptance of electrons?
ionic bonds
what kind of bond share electrons between atoms?
covalent bond
what electrons are shared in covalent bonds?
valence electrons
covalent bonding is greatest between atoms what share similar what?
electronegativites; or similar attractions for electrons.
electronegativity tends to increase from ___ to right___ on the periodic table?
left to right
covalent bonding results between atoms on what side of the table?
same side of the table
what is a visual representation for covalent bonding b/w atoms of a molecule?
lewis structures.
reactions must be balanced according to what 2 things?
1)atomic number
2)charge
what is the goal of balancing an equation?
to make certain that there are equal numbers of each atom on the reactant side and the product side
subscripts of an element represent what?
the number of atoms of that element
oxidation involves what?
donating electrons
reduction involves what?
accepting electrons
3 examples of oxidation-reduction reactions
1)photosynthesis
2)combustion
3)metabolism
what refers to the chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to maintain life?
metabolism
acid+ + base- -->____ +_____
salt + water
water is considered what?
polar molecule
what is a molecule that posses both positive and negative atomic structure?
polar molecule
what is the term that can chemically split the liquid water molecule into gaseous components?
electrolysis
what serves as a pH standard?
pure water
pure water that serves as a pH standard is central to what 2 things?
1)acid-base neutrality
2) enzyme function
pure water has a low what?
electrical conductivity
what is the maximum density of water?
4℃
what is the ratio of mass/volume?
density
what is the melting point of ice?
0℃
what is the boiling point of liquid water?
100℃
the boiling point of water depends on what?
pressure
what is alternatively used to express temperature?
Kelvin (K)
what is a metric temperature scaled defined by an absolute zero reference point?
Kelvin (K)
0K=____?
-273℃
what is the term for the temperature and pressure at which water will coexists as a solid, liquid, and gas?
triple-point of water
Kelvin temperatures are standardized by what?
the triple-point of water
what is the energy required to raise one unit of mass by a substance by 1℃?
Specific heat
water possess the ____ highest specific heat?
second
large specific heat of water enables it to undergo what?
minor temperature changes compared to the environment
water also has a high heat of what?
vaporization
what is the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition b/w a liquid and gas?
heat of vaporization
water acts as the universal what?
solvent
what theory states that atoms (or molecules) are always in constant motion?
kinetic theory
what state is considered to have a fixed shape and volume?
solid state
what is the term in which the atoms are arranged in a highly ordered state, to state in which the atoms lack true order?
solid state
solids are often considered to exist at high ___ and low ___?
pressures;temperatures
liquid states have a ____ volume and changing ____?
fixed; shape
what is the term for the physical connection b/w atoms that does not alter the chemical nature of the atoms?
physical bonding
liquids will spread out over a ____ volume?
greater
gaseous states have a changing ____ and ____
volume; shape
what is the term that is related to the energy needed to cause phase transition at fixed temperature?
latent heat
more energy is needed to transition from a ____ to ___?
liquid; gas (opposed to liquid to solid)
transitions b/w solid, liquid, and gas phases are achieved by how?
adding or subtracting energy from the system
what is the flow of energy due to the difference in temperature?
heat
the liquid to gas transition is through what 2 things?
1)vaporization
2)evaporization
liquid to gas transition requires the addition of what?
heat
the gas to liquid transition is achieved by what?
condensation
gas to liquid requires what?
a subtraction of heat
evaporation of a liquid is achieved by what 3 things?
1)high heat
2)low humidity
3)fast movement of the surrounding air mass
evaporization occurs by the physical collision at the surface of what?
surface layer of a liquid
the physical collision at the surface layer of the a liquid acts to remove what?
the faster-moving liquid molecules
vaporization occurs through the phase transition from ____ to ___?
liquid to gas
what is the alternation of the physical state b/w liquid, solid, gas?
phase transition
transition from a liquid to a gas takes place by breaking what?
the physical bond within the liquid.
heat of vaporization to transition from a liquid to a gas depends on what 2 things?
1)mass
2)latent heat

or heat/mass
what occurs through phase transition from a gas to a liquid?
condensation
condensation takes place by creating what?
physical bonds within the gas.
what is the formula for heat of vaporization?
H=M(g) x L(cal/g)