156 terms

IO Psyc exam 1

Organizational behavior
the study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations
Understanding behavior- internal perspective
thoughts, feelings, needs, past experiences
External perspective
external events, consequences, and environmental factors
Organizations as open systems: task
mission, purpose, goal
systems of communication, authority and roles, and workflow
tools, knowledge, techniques used to transform inputs into outputs
Inputs and outputs
material, capital, humans. products/services
Task environment
competitors, regulatory agencies, unions, clients, etc
Formal organizations
the official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system- policies, objectives, job descriptions, products and services, authority structures
Informal organizations
unofficial and less visible part of the system- beliefs, assumptions, feelings, values, informal leaders, perceptions, group norms
Four challenges for managers related to change
increased globalization of operating territories, increasing workforce diversity, continuining demand for higher levels of ethical and moral behavior at work, and continuining technological innovation with its companion need for skill enhancement
Total Quality Management (TQM)
the complete dedication to continuous improvement and to customers so that their needs are met and their expectations exceeded
Six Sigma
a philsophy for company-wide improvement. characterized by its customer-driven approach, decision-making based on quantitative data, and its priority on saving money. measure, analyze, improve, and control. can be applied to a range of areas and problems
Trends affecting managers
industrial restructuring, the increased amount and availability of information, need to attract and retain the best empoyees, need to understand human and cultural differences. trust, security, predictability
Challenges to be up-to-date on
improving quality/productivity (more output per employee), responding to labor shortages in some fields, improving customer service, empowering employees (feel they can make decisions on behalf of the customers on their own), coping with 'temporariness', stimulating innovation, and employee balance of work/life conflicts
Importance of addressing customer needs
increase positive employee attitudes, increase customer satisfaction, increase revenue growth. train employee to improve the employee-customer interaction. satisfied employees=satisfied customers
Dependent variables for management to address
productivity, absenteeism, turnover, satisfaction, loyalt, citizenship
Independent variables positively addressing these
job itself, work design, communication, performance appraisals, organizational design and structure
Multinational businss
business in several countries
global, all nations
Changes in global marketplace
collapse of estern europe, union of east and west berlin, expansion of business with china, creation of european union, establish of NAFTA
chinese practice of building networks for social exchange; partnership
Understanding cultural differences- individualism vs. collectivism
loose social frameworks, primary concern is for themselves and their families. collectivism- tightly knit social frameworks, depend strongly on large extended families or clans
High power distance vs low power distance
the acceptance of unequal distribution of power. high power= bosses are afforded more power simply because they are the bosses, authority is seldom bypassed. lower power= inequality should be minimized
High and low uncertainty avoidance
high= concerned with security and tend to avoid conflict. low= more tolerant of ambiguity
Masculinty vs femininity
masculine- assertiveness and materialism are valued. stereotypes of men and women's roles. feminine societies tend to blur gender roles
Time orientation
short term (past and present) or long term (future). china is long term, russia is short term
Expatriate manager
a manager who works in a country other than his or her home country
International executive
an executive whose job has international scope, doesn't necessarily live in this country like this expatriates
Developing cross-cultural sensitivity
use of mentor/protege relationships, cultural sensitivity training, cross-cultural teams, and global view of human resource functions
all forms of differences among people- culture, gender, age, ability, religion, personality, social status, and sexual orientation
Diversity benefits
helps firms attract and retain the best available talent, improves marketing efforts, promotes creativity/innovation, better problem-solving, and enhances organizational flexibility
Diversity problems
resistance to change, lack of cohesiveness, communication problems, interpersonal conflicts, and slowed decision-making
Ethics, Character, Personal Integrity: consequential theories
emphasize the consequences or results of behavior. right and wrong determined by the consequences of the behavior (utilitarianism)
Rule-based theories
emphasize the character of the act itself, not its effects
Character theories
emphasizes the character, personal virtues, and integrity of the individual
Employee rights issues
computerized monitoring, drug testing, free speech, downsizing and layoffs, due process, and AIDS in the workplace (rights of the infected work and others who feel threatened)
Sexual harassment: gender harassment
comments or jokes and behaviors that disparage someone's gender or convey hostility toward a particular gender
Unwated sexual attention
unwanted touching or repeated unwanted pressures for dates
Sexual coercion
implicit or explicit demands for sexual favors by threatening negative job-related consequences or promising job-related rewards
Organizational justice: distributive justice
conerns the fairness of the outcomes that individuals receive in an organization
Procedural justice
the fairness of the process by which outcomes are allocated
an employee who informs authorities of the wrongdoings of his or her company or coworkers
Social responsibility
the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which is operates
Code of ethics
adhere in their actions and behaviors. becomes a standard against which members can measure themselves in the absence of interalized standards (J and J credo)
Alternative work arrangements: telecommuting
transmitting work from a home computer to the office using a modem. gain flexibility, save the commute, and enjoy the comforts of home. but also have distractions, lack of social interaction, identify less with the organization, and takes a lot of self-discipline
mobile file cabinets and lockers for personal storage, and "hotel" work spaces are furnished for them
Satellite offices
facilities are broken into a network of smaller workplaces close to employees' homes
Virtual offices
work any time, anywhere, with anyone. internet access and online meeting software
Flex hours
work 8 hours a day, but can start and end at any time
Job sharing
two people do one job
Compressed work week
4 days a week, weekend free, but work 10 hour days
Case study from chapter one: Johnson and Johnson- using a credo for business guidance
commitment to a business philosophy that puts customers first, employees, the community, and lastly stockholders. constant source of guidance and serves as a foundation for everything the company does
Individual differences** variables influencing individual behavior
the person- skills/abilities, personality, perception, attribution, attitudes, values, ethics. the environment- organization, work group, job, personal life
Ethical dilemma
outsourcing- is it ethical? try to spread the greatest amount of good to the greatest number of consituents
a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence behavior
Interactional psychology
in order to understand behavior, we must know something about the person and the situation
Personality theories- trait theory
in order to understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits
Integrative approach
broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological processes
Big Five Personality Traits
extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
Core Self Evaluation (CSE)
a broad set of personality traits that refers to self-concept- comprised of self esteem, locus of control, self efficacy, and emotional stability
Locus of control
belief about internal control (self control) versus external control (the situation or others)
general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variet of situations
general feeling of self-worth
the extent to which people base thei rbehavior on cues from other people and situations. high SM pay attention to what is appropriate in particular situations and to the behavior of other people, and behave accordingly. low SM are not vigilant to situational cues and act from internal states rather than paying attention to the situations. low SM consistent, high SM less predictable bc behavior depends on the situation they're in. high SM more likely to get promoted, change employers, and make a job-related geographic move
Positive/negative affect
positive- tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of themselves, other people, and the world in general. negative- accentuate the negative aspects
4 measures of personality
projective tests (eliciting response from abstract stimuli), behavioral measures (observing a person's behavior in a controlled situation), self-report questionnaires, myers-briggs type indicator (measure jung's theory of individual differences)
MBTI preferences
introversion/extraversion, sensing vs intuiting, thinking vs feeling, judging vs perceiving
Social perception model
interpreting information about another person
Perceiver characteristics
familarity with the target, mood/attitude, self-concept, and cognitive structure
Target characteristics
physical appearance, verbal communication, nonverbal cues, intentions
Characteristics of the situation
the social context, the strength of situational cues (some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior, and so a person's bx can be accounted for by the situation)
Discounting principle
behavior accounted for by the situation
Barriers to social perception
subjective perception (selecting information that supports our viewpoints and ignoring info that threatens it), stereotyping, first impression error, projection (overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values, and behaviors), self-fulfilling prophecies (expectations about peple influence our interaction with them in a way in which those expectations are confirmed)
Impression management
people try to control the impressions others have of them- name-dropping, appearance, flattery, favors, agreement with others' opinions
Attribution theory
explains how people pinpoint the causes of their own behavior and that of others
Internal attribution
contributing success to your own ability or efforts
External attribution
attributing success to sources beyond one's control
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavior
Self-serving bias
attributing one's own successes to internal causes and one's failures to external causes
your belief in your ability to do something successfully
Primary effect
first impressions are often lasting, whether right or wrong
Recency effect
perception error in which the most recent information dominates a boss's perceptions or beliefs about a person's work. finds its way into performance appraisals
Halo effect
perceptual error when we make a general impression of someone based on one thing, and then start using that for everything. good on one trait=good on all. or bad on one trait=bad on all
Ethical dilemma for chapter 3
finding an employee with the specialized knowledge and skills that the new hire has it very hard. she was the only one who had this knowledge out of all who applied. she is extremely extroverted, but the main person she'd be working with is an introvert. doesn't want to make the introvert unhappy but needs this worker in this position
Case study for chapter 3
sir richard branson. owns the virgin companies. didn't get a diploma, was dylesxic, told he was stupid bc of his poor academic performance but had a loving family who set challenges for him. began building his successful career as a teenager. now is a CEO who likes to push the envelope and do what he wants
Chapter 4, changing nature of work
acquisition and mergers, downsizing, limited if any pay raises, limited opportunities for advancement, medical benefits, limited if any contributions to retirement funds, limited financial support for things like graduate degrees, people working past retirement age, increase diversity, uncertainty, violence, burnout, illness, etc
evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor
ABC model of attitude
affect, behavioral intentions, and cognition. affect refers to a person's feelings about something or someone- I like this, I prefer that. behavioral intentions- the intention to behave in a certain way toward an object or person. cognition- beliefs/perceptions
Cognitive dissonance
a state of tension that is produced when a person experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior
Attitude formation
direct experience (contact with person or object) and social learning (deriving attitudes from family, friends, peer groups, religious groups, etc). relatively fixed but can be changed
Work attitudes- organizational commitment
strength of a person's identification with an organization.
Affective commitment
desire to remain, liking the organization, emotional attachment, identifying with the organization
Continuance commitment
cannot afford to leave, unlikely to find a better job
Normative commitment
obligation to remain, sense of loyalty
Work attitudes- job satisfaction
pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience
Organizational citizenship behavior
behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty
Driving job satisfaction
work itself, quality of supervision, relationship with coworkers, promotional/advancement opportunities, pay, matching people to jobs that fit their interests
Measuring job satisfaction
absenteeism, customer satisfaction, performance on the job
Responses to job dissatisfaction
active, passive, destructive, and constuctive
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
look up
Emotions at work- emotional contagion
a dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels
Ethical behavior
acting in ways consistent with one's person values and the commonly held values of the organization and society
Individual/Organizational Model of Ethical Behavior
ethical behavior influenced by: individual- value system, locus of control, moral development. organization- code of conduct, training, ethics comittees, norms, modeling, rewards/punishments
Values: instrumental
values that represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state. emphasizes ways to get there
Terminal values
represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence. emphasizes the end point/result
one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way
The Psychological Contract
between the company and the employee- mutual agreement upon hiring that the employee will contribute and the employer provides wages, benefits, etc
Mergers and acquisition and their impact on the psychology and behavior of people
who's the boss now? culture clashes, communication difficulties, new procedures and regulations, changes in value systems, etc
Antisocial behavior in the workplace
aggression, hostility, insults, theft, violence, sabatoge. need to pick up on subtle behavioral cues if possible
Chapter 5** Motivation
arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. direction, intensity, persistence
Frederick W. Taylor
father of scientific management. said that monetary rewards for output produces extra personal productivity. concerned with improving employee proficiency, thought that people were almost exclusively motivated by money. believed in the picework system
Douglas McGregor
theory x people- how to manage people people who are motivated by lower-order needs (safety and physiological needs). theory Y- how to manage people who are motivated by higher-order needs (social, esteem, self-actualization)
Theory X workers
little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility
Theory Y workers
self-directed, enjoy work, accept responsibility
By understanding needs, we can understand what motivates- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
higher and lower level needs- at the bottom moving upward: physiological needs, safety and security, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. as one level of needs is met, a person progresses to the next higher level of need as a source of motivation. progress up the hierarchy as they successfully gratify each level of need
Alderfer's ERG theory
felt that maslow's needs were not quite accurate. grouped human needs into only 3 basic categories: existence, relatedness, and growth. also added a regression hypothesis to go along with maslow's progression hypothesis. states that people regree to the next lower category of needs and intensify their desire to gratify those needs. so explains both progressive need gratification and regression when people face frustration
McClelland's Need Theory
manifest needs: need for achievement (excellence, competition, challenging goals, overcoming difficulties), power (make an impact on others, influence others, make difference in lives), and affiliation (establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people)
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
motivation factors- a work condition related to satisfaction of the need for psychological growth. lead to positive mental health and challenge people to grow, contribute to the work enviro, and invest themselves in the organization. absence of these factors leads to the lack of satisfaction. most important factor bc affects motivational drive to do a good job. hygiene factor- a work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain. don't influence motivation to work but do contribute to the extent of discontent. don't stimulate growth but is a maintence factor
Process theories: equity theory of motivation
focuses on the individual-environment interaction. concerned with the social processes thati nfluence motivation and behavior. demands and contributions- worker brings expertise, knowledge, education, etc to the job and expect to receive certain outcomes such as pay, benefits, recognition, etc. assess our inputs vs rewards/recognition we receive vs. our coworkers. workers then make comparisons between their input-outcome ratios and those of fellow workers to determine equitable distributions. underpayment and overpayment inequity occur
Goal setting theory, Edwin Locke
our primary motivation is defined in terms of our desire to achieve a particular goal. specific or challenging goal motivates and guides behavior. having goals leads to higher performance than operating without goals, and the more specific the goal the better. more difficult goal attainment= better motivators. things that influence goal commitment- rewards, feedback, peer influence, participation in ngoal establishment, personal need for achievement, competitiveness, etc. should be clear, specific, attainable, and quantifiable, not general
Expectancy theory of motivation
focuses on personal perceptions of the performance process. efforts and performance should lead to rewards. if workers believe this, they will be motivated to perform
3 key factors of expectancy theory: valence of an outcome
value one places on a particular reward
belief that effort leads to performance
belief that performance is related to rewards
Reasons for employee burnout
job insecurity, technological advancements, information overload. results- emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lower levels of achievement, possibly clinical depression
Ways to motivate people
training, coaching, task assignments, rewards contingent on good performance, flextime, telecommuting, self-managed work teams, job sharing/part-time work, employee of the month
Performance appraisals
2-way discussion with managers and employee, feedback and evaluation, 6 months or annually, acknowledgment of employee, basis for raises, promotions, recognition, etc
Chapter 6**Learning and performance management. Bandura's Social Learning Theory
learning occurs through the observation of other people and the modeling of their behavior. central to his theory is task specific self efficacy- beliefs/expectancies about ability to perform a task effectively. 4 sources of this self efficacy: prior experiences, persuasion from others, behavior models (witnessing the success of others), and assessment of current physical and emotional capabilities
Goal setting at work
the process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior, very important
Characteristics of effective goals
specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time-bound
Goal setting functions
increase work motivation and task performance- employee participation, supervisory commitment, useful and timely performance feedback
Reduce role stress associated with conflicting or confusing situations
clarify task-role expectations communicated to employees, improve communication between managers and employees
Improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation
MBO, management by objectives- a goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers. articulates what to do, determines how to do it
Performance management
a process of defining, measuring, appraising, proving feedback on, and improving performance
How is performance measured?
performance appraisal- the evaluation of a person's performance. provides feedback to employees, identifies employees' developmental needs, decides promotions and rewards, decides demotions and terminations, develops info about the organization's selection and placement decisions
Communicating performance feedback
refer to specific verbatim statements and observable behaviors. focus on changeable behaviors. both supervisor and employee should plan and organize before the session. begin with something positive
360 degree feedback
a process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers (weighted)
Develop people and ehnance careers
supervisor- coach and enhance employees, be vulnerable and open to challenge, maintain a position of responsbility, listen emphatically, and encourage employees to talk about hope and aspirations. employee- take responsbility for growth and development, challenge supervisor about future development, and express individual preferences and goals
Individual or team rewards?
individual rewards- foster independent behavior, may lead to creative thinking/novel situations, encourage competitive striving within a work team. team rewards- emphasize cooperation and joint efforts, emphasize sharing information, knowledge, and expertise
a work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle
Why performance appraisals?
merit increases, promotions/firing/demotion, track/mentor/improve/record, documentation of employee performance or lack thereof, provides employee feedback, re-assignments, developmental tool/career path advancement, tool to help 'link' prganizational goals and employee's work activities
Errors in performance appraisals
leniency error- common; rater rates every employee either positively or negatively. halo effect- does well in one area and the manager generalize to all other areas of appraisal. central tendency- the manager doesn't do job right, gives out mediocre reviews to all of the employees. recency errors- the most recent activity influences overall rating. strictness error- refusing to give out high marks on principle. personal bias error- manager plays favorites
Performance appraisal sessions
in the work environ or outside the work enviro (situation dependent). manager's office, conference room, off site. end of day, beginning, start of day? formal vs informal atmosphere. preparation for review- employee informed ahead of time with a copy of the PA, allotted time for review, employee expectations for the review
Positive vs negative reviews
time allotment, location, discussion content approach, possible employee reaction, discussions of actual performance vs predetermined goals and objectives, employee input, manager recommendation for input, impact of manager's credibility/employee participation/not playing faves with some employees
Performance appraisal systems
some managers dislike giving appraisals (confrontational, must be base on facts/observations). annual ritual (every year). some companies utilize a 'forced distribution system' (forced to recognize x number of employees as a 5 or 3 or 1)
Most managers have difficulty
trouble distinguishing between 5's and 4's etc
Progressive disciplinary actions
the problem employees- recognize and document and communicate unsatisfactor situations with the employee, have 1 to 1 meetings and understanding the situation (hear out the employee), gather information from other sources, provide a warning letter if appropriate, establish a corrective action plan with schedule review days, bring HRM department into the situation to assure that all required rules, procedures, regulations are followed, meet and review performance 'after the fact', if employee meets required goals they can be placed back in good standing, and if they continue to not meet goals... placed on probation, review performance, terminate, time schedules to improve
Legal issues
recording employee performance, sign off or acknowledgement of the discussion of employee performance (not necessarily 'agreement with' but just that the discussion has taken place), potential lawsuits following termination (downsizing or firing)
Chapter 7*** Stress responses
physiological- blood pressure, HR, sweating, breathing, panic attacks, muscle tension. emotional- anger, anxiety, depression, low SE, irritability, resentment of management, job dissatisfaction. behavioral- poor performance, absenteeism, substance abuse, impulsive behavior, and high turnover rate. effects on a persons health, performance, work and personal life, job burnout, and sociability
Managing stress
the person- practice good time management, good planning, exercise, diet, rest, view difficulties as opportunities, recognize and minimize the tendency to be a perfectionist, balance work and personal life, learn relaxation techniques, maintain sense of humor. the organization- work environment improvements, job redesign, change workloads and deadlines, change work schedules, more flexibility, increase level of employee participation, stress seminars, wellness programs, clear organizational objectives and expectations