Only $2.99/month


Terms in this set (18)

Wagner or National Labor Relations Act of 1935, which recreated a powerful new National Labor Relations Board for administrative purposes and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.
Encouraged by the NLRB, a host of unskilled workers began to organize into effective unions
The leader of this drive was John L. Lewis and in 1935, he succeeded in forming the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) within the ranks of the skilled American Federation of Labor
In 1936, the older federation suspended the unions associated with the new organization
The rebellious CIO moved on a concerted scale into the huge automobile industry; late in 1936, workers resorted to a technique known as the sit-down strike and refused to leave the factories
The CIO won a resounding victory when General Motors recognized its union
The US Steel Company granted rights of unionization to its CIO-organized employees but the little steel companies fought back savagely—Memorial Day massacre in Republic Steel Company
In 1938, Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act (Wages and Hour Bill) and industries involved in interstate commerce were to set up minimum wage and maximum-hour levels
Labor by children under sixteen was forbidden and these reforms were bitterly opposed by many industrialists, especially by southern textile manufacturers who profited from low-wage labor
The CIO surged forward, breaking completely with the AF of L in 1938 and became known as the Congress of Industrial Organization under the presidency of John L. Lewis (4 million)
In nine major cases involving the New Deal, the Roosevelt administration had been thwarted seven times and he grew impatient to the obstruction conservatism of the Court. Early in 1937, Roosevelt caught the country by surprise bluntly asking Congress for legislation to permit him to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire—the maximum membership could then be fifteen and would be more favorable to the New Deal Programs. Congress and the nation were promptly convulsed over the scheme to "pack" the Supreme Court with a "dictator bill"—Roosevelt was looked down on for attempting to upset the balance in government. Justice Owen J. Roberts began to vote on the side of his liberal colleagues—upheld principle of state minimum wage for women, upheld Wagner Act and the Social Security Act
Congress voted to pay for justices over seventy who retired—replaced by Justice Hugo Black
Congress finally passed a court reform bill, a version that applied only to lower courts—Roosevelt suffered his first major legislative defeat at the hands of his own party in Congress.
The Court, as he had hoped, became markedly more friendly to New Deal reforms—a succession of deaths and resignations enabled him in time to make nine appointments to the tribunal, the most of any president since Washington.
FDR aroused conservatives of both parties in Congress that few New Deal reforms were passed after 1937; Roosevelt squandered much of the political goodwill that had carried him previously.