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world cultures/ china final
Terms in this set (42)
focused on relationships; during the reign of Shi Huangdi, hundreds of followers of this philosophy were murdered for their beliefs, and their books were burned
focused on natural order; this is what the philosophy of Laozi came to be called
encouraged strict laws and punishments; this is the philosophy adopted by Shi Huangdi
respect for elders; confucianism stressed a strong belief in this
thsi concept divides the world into two powers that represent the natural rhythms of life
this armed protest, which was a iolent reaction to foreign influence in china, was defeated by a multinational force
open door policy
this was declared by the US in an effort ot protect American trading rights inChina and China's freedom fro colonization
spheres of influence
these were regions of china in which britain, france, germany, japan and russia dominated trade and investment
this open clash between the british and the chinese resulted in the humiliating defeat of china and the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing
these provided American and other freigners with privileges that exempted them from chinese law at several chinese ports
advantage of chinese writing
people in all parts of china could communicate using the same writing system even if their spoken languages were different
mandate of heaven
affected the chinese government by allowing new rulers to justify the overthrow of a declining dynasty
said women's roles should be restricted to domestic and family life
to restore social order, harmony, and good government, confucius believed it was necessary for society to be organized around what general category?
unified china by defeating invaders and crushing internal opposition
he established schools for job applicants to improve his system of bureaucracy
she named one infant emperor and then another to maintain her power
paper, the two-bladed plow, and the wheelbarrow
what advances in technology developed during the Han Dynasty?
the population of china had increased, and there were many people to feed were reasons why confucian scholars considered _______ the most important occupation during the Han dynasty
in tang and song dynasties new gentry class gained social status through what?
porcelain, paper money, magnetic compass
inventions of the tang and song
pastoralists make a living by _______
membership in a mongol clan was determined by the members' claim of a common _______
through brilliant military strategy and organization
how did genghis khan succeed as a conqueror?
china believed it was self-sufficient and didn't need outside goods
what were china's main reasons for rejecting british offers of trade?
the idea of commerce offended confucian beliefs and taxes on manufactured goods were high
what two main reasons kept china from becoming highly industrialized?
he led seven chinese overseas explorations
why was zheng he important?
to improve the balance of trade between britain and china
why did britain sell opium to china?
treaty of nanjing was signed, china suffered a humiliating defeat, china gave up the island of hong kong
what were results of the opium war?
resentment of foreigners contributed to both
what did the opium war and boxer rebellion have in common?
this armed protest, which was a violent rection to foreign influence in china, was defeated by a multinational force
communists killed by nationalists
who was killed in the shang hai massacre?
who did china's peasants align themselves with in the 1920s?
chinese communists, fleeing the nationalists
which group was known for taking a 6,000 mile journey known as the "long march?"
the japanese launched an all out invasion of china
what even in 1937 halted the chinese civil war?
the chinese premier who made the first overtures toward establishing a more open relationship with the west was________
lack of political freedom
the students who were killed in Tiananmen Square were protesting the chinese government's_______
arrest of thousands of dissidents, preservation of deng xiaoping's power, massacre of hundreds of student demonstrators
the government's response to the protest in tiananmen square resulted in.......
when china took over hong kong, it promised them their______
social order, harmony, and good government should be based on family relationships; respect for parents and elders is important for a well-ordered society; education is important both for the well-being of the individual and society
what are the main ideas of confucianism?
farmers were sent to conquered lands; intermarriage was encouraged; schools were set up to train local people in confucian philosophy
how did the han chinese attempt to assimilate conquered people?
failures of the kumingtang; corruption in Jiang's government; soviet influence; poverty; Mao's leadership
what caused the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain strength?
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