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28 terms

Science- Populations and Communities

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Habitat
an organism's environment
Biotic Factors
parts of the habitat that are living
Abiotic Factors
parts of the habitat that are non-living
Species
a group of organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
Population
all the members of one species living in a particular area
Communities
all the different populations that live together in an area
Ecosystem
the community of organisms that live in a particular area along with their nonliving environment
Ecology
the study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment
Birth rate
the number of births per 1,000 individuals
Death Rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals
Immigration
when individuals move into a population
Emigration
when individuals move out of a population
Population density
the number of individuals in an area of specific size
Limiting factor
an environmental factor that causes a population to stop growing or decrease in size
Carrying capacity
largest population that an area can support
Natural selection
Individuals whose unique characteristics are well suited for an environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. Those unique characteristics are called adaptations.
Niche
the role of an organism in its habitat
Competition
the struggle between organism to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resources
Predation
when an organism kills another one for food or nutrients
Predator
the organism that does the killing
Prey
the animal that is killed
Symbiosis
any relationship in which two species live closely together and at least one of the species benefits
Mutualism
a relationship where both species benefit
Commensalism
a relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed
Parasitism
a relationship that involves one organism living with, on, or inside another organism and harming it
Primary succession
the series of changes that occurs in an area where no soil or organisms exist
Pioneer species
the first species to populate an area
Secondary succession
the series of changes that occurs in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but where soil and organisms still exist