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21 terms

Spanish Final:Grammar-Chapter 3

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Affirmative commands with "tú"
Use present indicative Ud. él, ella form. This also applies to stem changing verbs.
Example of affirmative "tú" commands
caminar: camina
comer: come
abrir: abre
jugar: juega
volver: vuelve
pedir: pide
Irregular tú commands
decir: dí
salir: sal
hacer: haz
ser: sé
ir: ve
tener: ten
mantener: mantén
venir: ven
poner: pon
Negative tú commands
drop ending of present tense yo form and add follwing endings-
-ar verbs: es
-er and -ir verbs: as
this also applies to verbs ending in -go -zco or -jo:
no salgas
no ofrezcas
no escojas
Irregular negative tú command forms
dar: no des
estar: no estés
ir: no vayas
ser: no seas
Spelling changes for -car, -gar, and -zar in negative tú commands
c changes to qu: no saques
g changes to gu: no llegues
z changes to c: no cruces
When using pronouns with negative tú or formal commands
place them after the no; do not attach
Ud. commands
Remove s from negative tú commands:
hable
traiga
vaya
Uds. commands
replace s of negative tú command with n:
hablen
traigan
vayan
No Ud. or Uds. commands
just add no before the command
Subjunctive
used when someone wants, suggests, or demands that someone do something; contains main clause and subordinate clause connected by que:
quiero que respires
sugiero que bebas
or use es necesario, es bueno, es importante
Subjunctive of -ar
e
es
e
emos
éis
en
Subjunctive or -er and -ir
a
as
a
amos
áis
an
Spelling changes in subjunctive
c goes to qu: busque
g goes to gu: pague
z goes to c: cruce
Subjunctive irregular: dar

des

demos
deis
den
Subjunctive irregular: estar
esté
estés
esté
estemos
estéis
estén
Subjunctive irregular: haber
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
Subjunctive irregular: ir
vaya
vayas
vaya
vayamos
vayáis
vayan
Subjunctive irregular: saber
sepa
sepas
sepa
sepamos
sepáis
sepan
Subjunctive irregular: ser
sea
seas
sea
seamos
seáis
sean
Stem changing subjunctive
Subjunctive follows stem change except in nosotros and vosotros forms:
jugar-juegue
pensar-piense
entendar-entienda
follow this pattern: o to ue-
contar, poder, volver, costar, probar, llover, doler
e to ie-
querer, sentarse, calentar, despertarm empezar, entender
stem changing e to ie, e to i, o to ue ending in -ir have stem change in all forms:
sentierse: sintamos
pedie: pidamos
dormir: durmamos
others that follow this pattern:
divertirse, preferir, reír, repetir, servir, vestirse, seguir, conseguir, morir