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17 terms

Chapter 4

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Eukaryotic Cells
have nucleus
has organelles specialized for carrying on specific functions
organelles are in cytoplasm
Cilia
Filamentous structures on the surface of the cell. they are short and numerous
help the cell to move
Flagella
filamentous structures. they are long and few
help the cell move
sperm cells
Cell Walls
plant cells have cellulose in cell wall
fungi have chitin cell wall
animal cells have no cell wall
Animal Cell walls
have glycocalyx- made up of carbohydrates- protects the cell
Plasma Membrane
proteins, lipids and carbohydrates- encloses the cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
cytoskeleton involved in cytoplasmic streaming
cytoplasm circulates with the cell such that the nutrients are distributed throughout the cell
Nuclear pore
stuff can flow in and out of the nucleus
Nucleus
DNA- packaged into nucleosomes
ribosomal rRNA is being synthesized in the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
mad up of flay membrane sacs
rough ER- ribosomes attached- proteins being synthesized
Golgi Complex
Flat memrane sacs
proteins and lipids are modified to other parts of the cell
Ribosomes
Free in the cytoplasm
Made up of 2 subunits
each subunit is made up of proteins and ribosomal RNA
Eukaryotic cell has 80s ribosomes
larger and denser than prokaryotic ribosomes
Mitochondria
Carries out cellular respiration
powerhouse of the cell
DNA in matrix
70s ribosomes in matrix
Chloroplasts
only found in plant cells
flat membrane sacs
photosynthesis
DNA and 70s ribosomes
Lysosome
Membrane bound vesicle
membrane bags filed with digestive enzymes
white blood cells have a large number of lysosomes
specialize in destroying microbes
Vacuole
cavity surrounded by a membrane
plant cells have large water vacuoles
Centrioles
made up of proteins
flagella and cilia grow out of centriole