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The second wave of Jewish immigrants to the United States began in the nineteenth century among the Ashkenazi, Jews of eastern Europe who were fleeing persecution and pogrom
boy's ritual, at age 13, that moves him into full membership of the religious community and adulthood
extension of bar mitzvah ritual to females by the Conservative and Reform Jewish communities
ritual called Bris or Brit milah required for every male at 8 days old, when the child is circumcised and named
a mutual agreement between two parties that is both an expression of mutual love and care and a legal agreement on the model of a marriage contract
a movement marked by piety, great devotion, and expression of great joy in response to God's presence, which is found everywhere in creation1
literally means "burnt sacrifice"; long-standing Christian anti-Judaism, the rise of secularism, and scientific-bureaucratic forms of social control all contributed to Hitler's attempt during World War II to rid the world of Jews
Jewish mysticism, emerged in the late medieval period; defining work is the Zohar, Book of Splendor
in Spain in the late 1400s, 13,000 Jews, most of whom had been forcibly baptized as Christians, were condemned as Marranos—Jews masquerading as Christians while practicing their Judaism in secret
the first wave of Jewish immigrants to the United States, starting in 1654, were the Sephardic Jews, of Spanish or Portuguese extraction, seeking religious freedom
insights of the oral tradition written down, from second to fifth centuries, initiated by the Pharisees; emergence of Rabbinic Judaism
Jewish Bible that came into existence at end of first century; called the Old Testament by Christians
the day of mourning for commemorating the historical tragedies of Judaism, especially the fall of the first and second temples
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