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31 terms

Judaism - Chapter 3

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Ashkenazi Jews
The second wave of Jewish immigrants to the United States began in the nineteenth century among the Ashkenazi, Jews of eastern Europe who were fleeing persecution and pogrom
bar mitzvah
boy's ritual, at age 13, that moves him into full membership of the religious community and adulthood
bat mitzvah
extension of bar mitzvah ritual to females by the Conservative and Reform Jewish communities
circumcision
ritual called Bris or Brit milah required for every male at 8 days old, when the child is circumcised and named
covenant
a mutual agreement between two parties that is both an expression of mutual love and care and a legal agreement on the model of a marriage contract
Diaspora
Jews who were dispersed in the Roman Empire
dual Torah
the sacred oral and written teachings that established the covenant with Israel
Gemara
commentary on the Mishnah that linked oral and written Torah
gentile
a non-Jewish person
halakhah
the premodern Talmudic tradition; Jewish law
heredim
refers to eastern European Jews "of true piety"
Hasidism
a movement marked by piety, great devotion, and expression of great joy in response to God's presence, which is found everywhere in creation1
Holocaust
literally means "burnt sacrifice"; long-standing Christian anti-Judaism, the rise of secularism, and scientific-bureaucratic forms of social control all contributed to Hitler's attempt during World War II to rid the world of Jews
Israel
"wrestler with God"; Jacob renamed by God
Kabbalah
Jewish mysticism, emerged in the late medieval period; defining work is the Zohar, Book of Splendor
kosher
rules for dining
Marranos
in Spain in the late 1400s, 13,000 Jews, most of whom had been forcibly baptized as Christians, were condemned as Marranos—Jews masquerading as Christians while practicing their Judaism in secret
Mishnah
the writings that form the core of the Talmud, primarily written by students of Hillel
mitzvot
deeds of loving kindness
Rabbinic
the Judaism of the dual Torah under the leadership of the rabbis
Sephardic Jews
the first wave of Jewish immigrants to the United States, starting in 1654, were the Sephardic Jews, of Spanish or Portuguese extraction, seeking religious freedom
Shema
Judaism's creed that states, "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one"
synagogue
house of study and prayer
Talmud
insights of the oral tradition written down, from second to fifth centuries, initiated by the Pharisees; emergence of Rabbinic Judaism
tanak
Jewish Bible that came into existence at end of first century; called the Old Testament by Christians
Tannaim
"those who study"
temple
center of Jewish life until its destruction in 70 ce
Tisha B'av
the day of mourning for commemorating the historical tragedies of Judaism, especially the fall of the first and second temples
Tzaddik
Hasidic term for a righteous man
Zionism
form of nationalism that returns Israel to Jews exclusively
Zohar
most important Kabbalistic work, also called Book of Splendor