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Ashkenazi Jews

The second wave of Jewish immigrants to the United States began in the nineteenth century among the Ashkenazi, Jews of eastern Europe who were fleeing persecution and pogrom

bar mitzvah

boy's ritual, at age 13, that moves him into full membership of the religious community and adulthood

bat mitzvah

extension of bar mitzvah ritual to females by the Conservative and Reform Jewish communities


ritual called Bris or Brit milah required for every male at 8 days old, when the child is circumcised and named


a mutual agreement between two parties that is both an expression of mutual love and care and a legal agreement on the model of a marriage contract


Jews who were dispersed in the Roman Empire

dual Torah

the sacred oral and written teachings that established the covenant with Israel


commentary on the Mishnah that linked oral and written Torah


a non-Jewish person


the premodern Talmudic tradition; Jewish law


refers to eastern European Jews "of true piety"


a movement marked by piety, great devotion, and expression of great joy in response to God's presence, which is found everywhere in creation1


literally means "burnt sacrifice"; long-standing Christian anti-Judaism, the rise of secularism, and scientific-bureaucratic forms of social control all contributed to Hitler's attempt during World War II to rid the world of Jews


"wrestler with God"; Jacob renamed by God


Jewish mysticism, emerged in the late medieval period; defining work is the Zohar, Book of Splendor


rules for dining


in Spain in the late 1400s, 13,000 Jews, most of whom had been forcibly baptized as Christians, were condemned as Marranos—Jews masquerading as Christians while practicing their Judaism in secret


the writings that form the core of the Talmud, primarily written by students of Hillel


deeds of loving kindness


the Judaism of the dual Torah under the leadership of the rabbis

Sephardic Jews

the first wave of Jewish immigrants to the United States, starting in 1654, were the Sephardic Jews, of Spanish or Portuguese extraction, seeking religious freedom


Judaism's creed that states, "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one"


house of study and prayer


insights of the oral tradition written down, from second to fifth centuries, initiated by the Pharisees; emergence of Rabbinic Judaism


Jewish Bible that came into existence at end of first century; called the Old Testament by Christians


"those who study"


center of Jewish life until its destruction in 70 ce

Tisha B'av

the day of mourning for commemorating the historical tragedies of Judaism, especially the fall of the first and second temples


Hasidic term for a righteous man


form of nationalism that returns Israel to Jews exclusively


most important Kabbalistic work, also called Book of Splendor

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