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a line of verse that has six iambic feet


use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse


a reference to another work of literature, person, or event


a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction


the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words

Byronic hero

a self tormented outcast who is cynical and contemptuous of societal norms and is suffering from some unnamed or mysterious sin


the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words


a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region

Dramatic Monologue

a poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener


a mournful poem, esp. one lamenting the dead


a moment of sudden revelation or insight


the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage


a poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet


incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs


a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization


A device in literature where an object represents an idea.

Spenserian stanza

a stanza with eight lines of iambic pentameter and a concluding Alexandrine with the rhyme pattern ababbcbcc


a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity


describing one kind of sensation in terms of another

Terza rima

an Italian form of iambic verse consisting of eleven-syllable lines arranged in tercets, the middle line of each tercet rhyming with the first and last lines of the following tercet


highly structured poem consisting of six stanzas: five tercets and a quatrain; first and third line are repeated throughout

Figurative language

Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.


the ability to form mental images of things or events


the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author


form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly


a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work


(logic) a self-contradiction


(philosophy) the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations

The Victorian Age

Victorian Sensibility: changing British landscape, Industrial Revolution, depression, England is THE power. Confidence leads to uncertainty


Literacy and artistic movement developed in early decatdes of the 20th centruy. Writers=crisis of identity. Uncertainty and rejection of traditional values and elevation of the individual.

A Tale of Two Cities

novel by Charles Dickens, 1859. It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done.


Dublin Ireland 1894, James Joyce, Theme: often times our dreams end in disillusionment, 1st person

Dover Beach

Matthew Arnold, The Sea of Faith Was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled. But now I only hear Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar, Retreating, to the breath Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear And naked shingles of the world., in times of unertainty turn towards eachother and love

Kubla Khan

tone: enchanted, vivid, crazy

about: palace in Imperial City (paradise); dreams about experiencing paradise, nature


no meter; holy and enchanted city

"For he on honey-dew hath fed, and drunk the milk of Paradise"

"In Xanudu did Kubla Khan a stately pleasure-dome decree"

author: Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Tintern Abbey

William Wordsworth, Describes how nature influenced Wordsworth, written after a walk with his sister, Subject is memory from 5 years ago, reflecting on communion with natural beauty in childhood works upon mind even in adulthood when time has passed. 5 years later, WW is not one with nature anymore but knows his memories will serve him well. Current memories provide food and life for future; 5 years later returns with a change in perspective, more mature and experienced. Knowledge of mankind changes POV

Musee Des Beaux Arts

W.H Auden-believed in communism extreme intellectual, allusion refers to Icarus a myth Theme: one person's tragedies do not affect another

My Last Duchess

Dramatic monologue by Robert Browning. A duke speaks about his dead wife. Victorian Era

Ode to a Nightingale

John Keats; Worshiping a bird as a deity, wishes he were as carefree as the bird, not having to worry about mortality, time passage. realizes that writing poetry allows him to soar like the bird, transcending those fears

Porphyria's Lover

Robert Browning, by Robert Browning. starts out with external descriptions, then quickly moves inward. About a girl that he kills to preserve the moment and their "love"., o "That moment she was mine, mine, fair Perfectly pure and good."

Shooting an Elephant

george orwell, Kills an elephant because he wants to impress the people watching him and dosnt want them to make fun of him and be mean to him. the main character is a guard for English in India

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Romantic story of a mariner who is cursed to life forever and tell his story about the reason he got cursed(killing the albatross), Folk Ballad

The Second Coming

tone: dark, doomed, terror fear

about: the coming of white men to Africa; cultures and lives being destroyed; anarchy loosed upon the world

"Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,"

"Surely some revelation is at hand; surely the Second Coming is at hand."

author: William Butler Yeats

To a Mouse

A Pre-Romantic poem by Robert Burns, a Scottish poet, in which the speaker concludes that mice are better off than humans, as they need not worry about the future


Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Live Life with adventure instead of sitting around doing nothing

Ah, Are you Digging on My Grave

hardy - poem about the women who died and she wonders who is digging on her grave and it is her dog who didn't even know it was where she was lying, You think you are more important than you really are

Apostrophe to the Ocean

Lord Byron,vastness-> strength-> Destruction->Unchanging and sublime-> endlessness, awe and worship to nostolgic

Darkling Thrush

Thomas Hardy, Victorian-there is always reason to hope even when it looks bleek


- Author: Seamus Heaney
- Significance: This poem describes the occupation (digging) that the speaker's father and grandfather enjoyed. The speaker, however did not enjoy this as they did, he prefers to write. By the end of the poem the speaker relates his own work to that of his ancestors by saying "between my finger and my thumb a pen rests, i"ll dig with it "

Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night

tone: regretful, rage, pleading

about: author speaking to dying father asking him to stay alive; sees the regrets, the things the father never did

nighttime- metaphor for death

end of life

3 lined stanzas

"Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, rage, rage against the dying of the light."

author: Dylan Thomas

In Memoriam

-iambic tetrameter quatrains
-written over 17 years
-progress from bitter grief & doubt --> acceptance
-seen as the answer to the faith/science quarrel
-plays with the word "Type" (species, Hallum, Christ)
-Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance

Ode on a Grecian Urn

Ode to Art, , tone: cynical, awestruck, beauty, story

about: speaker reveling about the artwork on an urn and how the stories from the paintings are timeless

around the urn (form and purpose) is a story, sometimes unknown

*one can form their own song and story about the urn


Greek theme- communion with nature

10 line stanzas

"Beauty is truth, truth beauty,-that is all ye know on earth, and all ye need to know."

author: John Keats

Ode to the West Wind

Percy Bysshe Shelley, "If winter comes, spring is not far behind", going into a storm-in a storm-or coming out of a storm

The Chimney Sweeper

- Author: William Blake
- Time: 1789
- Significance: This poem describes the life of a child chimney sweeper who becomes an orphan, becomes a chimney sweeper, and loses his innocence. Many of his friends die around him,but they all go up to heaven. Every child's hope is to end up in heaven with their spiritual Father as they have grown up as orphans on Earth. A poem showing the social oppressions of Industrialization.
-Two different poems

The Rocking Horse Winner

D. H. Lawerence, What luck really is. Theme- Greed can never be satisfied. Exploitation of the boy to money. Explores the relationship between love, luck, happiness, and money

The Tyger

William Blake, 1794, Romantic, Uses common tools of the day to ask if God made tyger. Brings attention to exotic extremities -- what kind of god could create such a creature? Fundamental question is never answered. Tiger represents evil and violence, balances Lamb.

To a Louse

Robert Burns, Romantic- Sees lice in a woman's hair and has emotional response to its presence

To an Athlete Dying Young

by: A E Housman

1 stanza celebrates a race won
2 tone changes , dies young
3 the lad was smart to die young
4&5 death is good because he wanted to see the record borken... dies with fame

Romanticism Authors

Thomas Grey, William Blake, Robert Burns, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats

Victorian Authors

Tennyson, Robert Browning, Arnold, A.E Housman, Thomas Hardy

Modernism Authors

Auden, Thomas, Keats, Brooke, Lawerance, Joyce, Greene, Orwell, Sasson, Heaney


a writer's or speaker's choice of words

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